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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2014-10-08 21:40:54 -0400
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2014-10-08 21:40:54 -0400
commit35a9ad8af0bb0fa3525e6d0d20e32551d226f38e (patch)
tree15b4b33206818886d9cff371fd2163e073b70568 /Documentation/networking/filter.txt
parentMerge tag 'arm64-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/arm/arm-soc (diff)
parentMerge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net (diff)
downloadlinux-dev-35a9ad8af0bb0fa3525e6d0d20e32551d226f38e.tar.xz
linux-dev-35a9ad8af0bb0fa3525e6d0d20e32551d226f38e.zip
Merge git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-next
Pull networking updates from David Miller: "Most notable changes in here: 1) By far the biggest accomplishment, thanks to a large range of contributors, is the addition of multi-send for transmit. This is the result of discussions back in Chicago, and the hard work of several individuals. Now, when the ->ndo_start_xmit() method of a driver sees skb->xmit_more as true, it can choose to defer the doorbell telling the driver to start processing the new TX queue entires. skb->xmit_more means that the generic networking is guaranteed to call the driver immediately with another SKB to send. There is logic added to the qdisc layer to dequeue multiple packets at a time, and the handling mis-predicted offloads in software is now done with no locks held. Finally, pktgen is extended to have a "burst" parameter that can be used to test a multi-send implementation. Several drivers have xmit_more support: i40e, igb, ixgbe, mlx4, virtio_net Adding support is almost trivial, so export more drivers to support this optimization soon. I want to thank, in no particular or implied order, Jesper Dangaard Brouer, Eric Dumazet, Alexander Duyck, Tom Herbert, Jamal Hadi Salim, John Fastabend, Florian Westphal, Daniel Borkmann, David Tat, Hannes Frederic Sowa, and Rusty Russell. 2) PTP and timestamping support in bnx2x, from Michal Kalderon. 3) Allow adjusting the rx_copybreak threshold for a driver via ethtool, and add rx_copybreak support to enic driver. From Govindarajulu Varadarajan. 4) Significant enhancements to the generic PHY layer and the bcm7xxx driver in particular (EEE support, auto power down, etc.) from Florian Fainelli. 5) Allow raw buffers to be used for flow dissection, allowing drivers to determine the optimal "linear pull" size for devices that DMA into pools of pages. The objective is to get exactly the necessary amount of headers into the linear SKB area pre-pulled, but no more. The new interface drivers use is eth_get_headlen(). From WANG Cong, with driver conversions (several had their own by-hand duplicated implementations) by Alexander Duyck and Eric Dumazet. 6) Support checksumming more smoothly and efficiently for encapsulations, and add "foo over UDP" facility. From Tom Herbert. 7) Add Broadcom SF2 switch driver to DSA layer, from Florian Fainelli. 8) eBPF now can load programs via a system call and has an extensive testsuite. Alexei Starovoitov and Daniel Borkmann. 9) Major overhaul of the packet scheduler to use RCU in several major areas such as the classifiers and rate estimators. From John Fastabend. 10) Add driver for Intel FM10000 Ethernet Switch, from Alexander Duyck. 11) Rearrange TCP_SKB_CB() to reduce cache line misses, from Eric Dumazet. 12) Add Datacenter TCP congestion control algorithm support, From Florian Westphal. 13) Reorganize sk_buff so that __copy_skb_header() is significantly faster. From Eric Dumazet" * git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/davem/net-next: (1558 commits) netlabel: directly return netlbl_unlabel_genl_init() net: add netdev_txq_bql_{enqueue, complete}_prefetchw() helpers net: description of dma_cookie cause make xmldocs warning cxgb4: clean up a type issue cxgb4: potential shift wrapping bug i40e: skb->xmit_more support net: fs_enet: Add NAPI TX net: fs_enet: Remove non NAPI RX r8169:add support for RTL8168EP net_sched: copy exts->type in tcf_exts_change() wimax: convert printk to pr_foo() af_unix: remove 0 assignment on static ipv6: Do not warn for informational ICMP messages, regardless of type. Update Intel Ethernet Driver maintainers list bridge: Save frag_max_size between PRE_ROUTING and POST_ROUTING tipc: fix bug in multicast congestion handling net: better IFF_XMIT_DST_RELEASE support net/mlx4_en: remove NETDEV_TX_BUSY 3c59x: fix bad split of cpu_to_le32(pci_map_single()) net: bcmgenet: fix Tx ring priority programming ...
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/networking/filter.txt')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/filter.txt271
1 files changed, 270 insertions, 1 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/filter.txt b/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
index f4db0972ea38..b1935f9ce081 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
@@ -951,7 +951,7 @@ Size modifier is one of ...
Mode modifier is one of:
- BPF_IMM 0x00 /* classic BPF only, reserved in eBPF */
+ BPF_IMM 0x00 /* used for 32-bit mov in classic BPF and 64-bit in eBPF */
BPF_ABS 0x20
BPF_IND 0x40
BPF_MEM 0x60
@@ -995,6 +995,275 @@ BPF_XADD | BPF_DW | BPF_STX: lock xadd *(u64 *)(dst_reg + off16) += src_reg
Where size is one of: BPF_B or BPF_H or BPF_W or BPF_DW. Note that 1 and
2 byte atomic increments are not supported.
+eBPF has one 16-byte instruction: BPF_LD | BPF_DW | BPF_IMM which consists
+of two consecutive 'struct bpf_insn' 8-byte blocks and interpreted as single
+instruction that loads 64-bit immediate value into a dst_reg.
+Classic BPF has similar instruction: BPF_LD | BPF_W | BPF_IMM which loads
+32-bit immediate value into a register.
+
+eBPF verifier
+-------------
+The safety of the eBPF program is determined in two steps.
+
+First step does DAG check to disallow loops and other CFG validation.
+In particular it will detect programs that have unreachable instructions.
+(though classic BPF checker allows them)
+
+Second step starts from the first insn and descends all possible paths.
+It simulates execution of every insn and observes the state change of
+registers and stack.
+
+At the start of the program the register R1 contains a pointer to context
+and has type PTR_TO_CTX.
+If verifier sees an insn that does R2=R1, then R2 has now type
+PTR_TO_CTX as well and can be used on the right hand side of expression.
+If R1=PTR_TO_CTX and insn is R2=R1+R1, then R2=UNKNOWN_VALUE,
+since addition of two valid pointers makes invalid pointer.
+(In 'secure' mode verifier will reject any type of pointer arithmetic to make
+sure that kernel addresses don't leak to unprivileged users)
+
+If register was never written to, it's not readable:
+ bpf_mov R0 = R2
+ bpf_exit
+will be rejected, since R2 is unreadable at the start of the program.
+
+After kernel function call, R1-R5 are reset to unreadable and
+R0 has a return type of the function.
+
+Since R6-R9 are callee saved, their state is preserved across the call.
+ bpf_mov R6 = 1
+ bpf_call foo
+ bpf_mov R0 = R6
+ bpf_exit
+is a correct program. If there was R1 instead of R6, it would have
+been rejected.
+
+load/store instructions are allowed only with registers of valid types, which
+are PTR_TO_CTX, PTR_TO_MAP, FRAME_PTR. They are bounds and alignment checked.
+For example:
+ bpf_mov R1 = 1
+ bpf_mov R2 = 2
+ bpf_xadd *(u32 *)(R1 + 3) += R2
+ bpf_exit
+will be rejected, since R1 doesn't have a valid pointer type at the time of
+execution of instruction bpf_xadd.
+
+At the start R1 type is PTR_TO_CTX (a pointer to generic 'struct bpf_context')
+A callback is used to customize verifier to restrict eBPF program access to only
+certain fields within ctx structure with specified size and alignment.
+
+For example, the following insn:
+ bpf_ld R0 = *(u32 *)(R6 + 8)
+intends to load a word from address R6 + 8 and store it into R0
+If R6=PTR_TO_CTX, via is_valid_access() callback the verifier will know
+that offset 8 of size 4 bytes can be accessed for reading, otherwise
+the verifier will reject the program.
+If R6=FRAME_PTR, then access should be aligned and be within
+stack bounds, which are [-MAX_BPF_STACK, 0). In this example offset is 8,
+so it will fail verification, since it's out of bounds.
+
+The verifier will allow eBPF program to read data from stack only after
+it wrote into it.
+Classic BPF verifier does similar check with M[0-15] memory slots.
+For example:
+ bpf_ld R0 = *(u32 *)(R10 - 4)
+ bpf_exit
+is invalid program.
+Though R10 is correct read-only register and has type FRAME_PTR
+and R10 - 4 is within stack bounds, there were no stores into that location.
+
+Pointer register spill/fill is tracked as well, since four (R6-R9)
+callee saved registers may not be enough for some programs.
+
+Allowed function calls are customized with bpf_verifier_ops->get_func_proto()
+The eBPF verifier will check that registers match argument constraints.
+After the call register R0 will be set to return type of the function.
+
+Function calls is a main mechanism to extend functionality of eBPF programs.
+Socket filters may let programs to call one set of functions, whereas tracing
+filters may allow completely different set.
+
+If a function made accessible to eBPF program, it needs to be thought through
+from safety point of view. The verifier will guarantee that the function is
+called with valid arguments.
+
+seccomp vs socket filters have different security restrictions for classic BPF.
+Seccomp solves this by two stage verifier: classic BPF verifier is followed
+by seccomp verifier. In case of eBPF one configurable verifier is shared for
+all use cases.
+
+See details of eBPF verifier in kernel/bpf/verifier.c
+
+eBPF maps
+---------
+'maps' is a generic storage of different types for sharing data between kernel
+and userspace.
+
+The maps are accessed from user space via BPF syscall, which has commands:
+- create a map with given type and attributes
+ map_fd = bpf(BPF_MAP_CREATE, union bpf_attr *attr, u32 size)
+ using attr->map_type, attr->key_size, attr->value_size, attr->max_entries
+ returns process-local file descriptor or negative error
+
+- lookup key in a given map
+ err = bpf(BPF_MAP_LOOKUP_ELEM, union bpf_attr *attr, u32 size)
+ using attr->map_fd, attr->key, attr->value
+ returns zero and stores found elem into value or negative error
+
+- create or update key/value pair in a given map
+ err = bpf(BPF_MAP_UPDATE_ELEM, union bpf_attr *attr, u32 size)
+ using attr->map_fd, attr->key, attr->value
+ returns zero or negative error
+
+- find and delete element by key in a given map
+ err = bpf(BPF_MAP_DELETE_ELEM, union bpf_attr *attr, u32 size)
+ using attr->map_fd, attr->key
+
+- to delete map: close(fd)
+ Exiting process will delete maps automatically
+
+userspace programs use this syscall to create/access maps that eBPF programs
+are concurrently updating.
+
+maps can have different types: hash, array, bloom filter, radix-tree, etc.
+
+The map is defined by:
+ . type
+ . max number of elements
+ . key size in bytes
+ . value size in bytes
+
+Understanding eBPF verifier messages
+------------------------------------
+
+The following are few examples of invalid eBPF programs and verifier error
+messages as seen in the log:
+
+Program with unreachable instructions:
+static struct bpf_insn prog[] = {
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+};
+Error:
+ unreachable insn 1
+
+Program that reads uninitialized register:
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_0, BPF_REG_2),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (bf) r0 = r2
+ R2 !read_ok
+
+Program that doesn't initialize R0 before exiting:
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_1),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (bf) r2 = r1
+ 1: (95) exit
+ R0 !read_ok
+
+Program that accesses stack out of bounds:
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, 8, 0),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (7a) *(u64 *)(r10 +8) = 0
+ invalid stack off=8 size=8
+
+Program that doesn't initialize stack before passing its address into function:
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8),
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, 0),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (bf) r2 = r10
+ 1: (07) r2 += -8
+ 2: (b7) r1 = 0x0
+ 3: (85) call 1
+ invalid indirect read from stack off -8+0 size 8
+
+Program that uses invalid map_fd=0 while calling to map_lookup_elem() function:
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, -8, 0),
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8),
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, 0),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (7a) *(u64 *)(r10 -8) = 0
+ 1: (bf) r2 = r10
+ 2: (07) r2 += -8
+ 3: (b7) r1 = 0x0
+ 4: (85) call 1
+ fd 0 is not pointing to valid bpf_map
+
+Program that doesn't check return value of map_lookup_elem() before accessing
+map element:
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, -8, 0),
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8),
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, 0),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_0, 0, 0),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (7a) *(u64 *)(r10 -8) = 0
+ 1: (bf) r2 = r10
+ 2: (07) r2 += -8
+ 3: (b7) r1 = 0x0
+ 4: (85) call 1
+ 5: (7a) *(u64 *)(r0 +0) = 0
+ R0 invalid mem access 'map_value_or_null'
+
+Program that correctly checks map_lookup_elem() returned value for NULL, but
+accesses the memory with incorrect alignment:
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, -8, 0),
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8),
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, 0),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
+ BPF_JMP_IMM(BPF_JEQ, BPF_REG_0, 0, 1),
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_0, 4, 0),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (7a) *(u64 *)(r10 -8) = 0
+ 1: (bf) r2 = r10
+ 2: (07) r2 += -8
+ 3: (b7) r1 = 1
+ 4: (85) call 1
+ 5: (15) if r0 == 0x0 goto pc+1
+ R0=map_ptr R10=fp
+ 6: (7a) *(u64 *)(r0 +4) = 0
+ misaligned access off 4 size 8
+
+Program that correctly checks map_lookup_elem() returned value for NULL and
+accesses memory with correct alignment in one side of 'if' branch, but fails
+to do so in the other side of 'if' branch:
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_10, -8, 0),
+ BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_2, BPF_REG_10),
+ BPF_ALU64_IMM(BPF_ADD, BPF_REG_2, -8),
+ BPF_LD_MAP_FD(BPF_REG_1, 0),
+ BPF_RAW_INSN(BPF_JMP | BPF_CALL, 0, 0, 0, BPF_FUNC_map_lookup_elem),
+ BPF_JMP_IMM(BPF_JEQ, BPF_REG_0, 0, 2),
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_0, 0, 0),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+ BPF_ST_MEM(BPF_DW, BPF_REG_0, 0, 1),
+ BPF_EXIT_INSN(),
+Error:
+ 0: (7a) *(u64 *)(r10 -8) = 0
+ 1: (bf) r2 = r10
+ 2: (07) r2 += -8
+ 3: (b7) r1 = 1
+ 4: (85) call 1
+ 5: (15) if r0 == 0x0 goto pc+2
+ R0=map_ptr R10=fp
+ 6: (7a) *(u64 *)(r0 +0) = 0
+ 7: (95) exit
+
+ from 5 to 8: R0=imm0 R10=fp
+ 8: (7a) *(u64 *)(r0 +0) = 1
+ R0 invalid mem access 'imm'
+
Testing
-------