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authorAlexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>2014-06-10 17:44:07 +0200
committerDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>2014-06-11 15:39:18 -0700
commit783e327b69e24924055359a4e5779d04c052974a (patch)
tree0ef64e416793dd392c44e51c6db1e63c518bca11 /Documentation/networking/filter.txt
parentnet: filter: mention eBPF terminology as well (diff)
downloadlinux-dev-783e327b69e24924055359a4e5779d04c052974a.tar.xz
linux-dev-783e327b69e24924055359a4e5779d04c052974a.zip
net: filter: document internal instruction encoding
This patch adds a description of eBPFs instruction encoding in order to bring the documentation in line with the implementation. Signed-off-by: Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com> Signed-off-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Diffstat (limited to '')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/filter.txt161
1 files changed, 161 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/filter.txt b/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
index 1c7fc6baed84..ee78eba78a9d 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
+++ b/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
@@ -834,6 +834,167 @@ loops and other CFG validation; second step starts from the first insn and
descends all possible paths. It simulates execution of every insn and observes
the state change of registers and stack.
+eBPF opcode encoding
+--------------------
+
+eBPF is reusing most of the opcode encoding from classic to simplify conversion
+of classic BPF to eBPF. For arithmetic and jump instructions the 8-bit 'code'
+field is divided into three parts:
+
+ +----------------+--------+--------------------+
+ | 4 bits | 1 bit | 3 bits |
+ | operation code | source | instruction class |
+ +----------------+--------+--------------------+
+ (MSB) (LSB)
+
+Three LSB bits store instruction class which is one of:
+
+ Classic BPF classes: eBPF classes:
+
+ BPF_LD 0x00 BPF_LD 0x00
+ BPF_LDX 0x01 BPF_LDX 0x01
+ BPF_ST 0x02 BPF_ST 0x02
+ BPF_STX 0x03 BPF_STX 0x03
+ BPF_ALU 0x04 BPF_ALU 0x04
+ BPF_JMP 0x05 BPF_JMP 0x05
+ BPF_RET 0x06 [ class 6 unused, for future if needed ]
+ BPF_MISC 0x07 BPF_ALU64 0x07
+
+When BPF_CLASS(code) == BPF_ALU or BPF_JMP, 4th bit encodes source operand ...
+
+ BPF_K 0x00
+ BPF_X 0x08
+
+ * in classic BPF, this means:
+
+ BPF_SRC(code) == BPF_X - use register X as source operand
+ BPF_SRC(code) == BPF_K - use 32-bit immediate as source operand
+
+ * in eBPF, this means:
+
+ BPF_SRC(code) == BPF_X - use 'src_reg' register as source operand
+ BPF_SRC(code) == BPF_K - use 32-bit immediate as source operand
+
+... and four MSB bits store operation code.
+
+If BPF_CLASS(code) == BPF_ALU or BPF_ALU64 [ in eBPF ], BPF_OP(code) is one of:
+
+ BPF_ADD 0x00
+ BPF_SUB 0x10
+ BPF_MUL 0x20
+ BPF_DIV 0x30
+ BPF_OR 0x40
+ BPF_AND 0x50
+ BPF_LSH 0x60
+ BPF_RSH 0x70
+ BPF_NEG 0x80
+ BPF_MOD 0x90
+ BPF_XOR 0xa0
+ BPF_MOV 0xb0 /* eBPF only: mov reg to reg */
+ BPF_ARSH 0xc0 /* eBPF only: sign extending shift right */
+ BPF_END 0xd0 /* eBPF only: endianness conversion */
+
+If BPF_CLASS(code) == BPF_JMP, BPF_OP(code) is one of:
+
+ BPF_JA 0x00
+ BPF_JEQ 0x10
+ BPF_JGT 0x20
+ BPF_JGE 0x30
+ BPF_JSET 0x40
+ BPF_JNE 0x50 /* eBPF only: jump != */
+ BPF_JSGT 0x60 /* eBPF only: signed '>' */
+ BPF_JSGE 0x70 /* eBPF only: signed '>=' */
+ BPF_CALL 0x80 /* eBPF only: function call */
+ BPF_EXIT 0x90 /* eBPF only: function return */
+
+So BPF_ADD | BPF_X | BPF_ALU means 32-bit addition in both classic BPF
+and eBPF. There are only two registers in classic BPF, so it means A += X.
+In eBPF it means dst_reg = (u32) dst_reg + (u32) src_reg; similarly,
+BPF_XOR | BPF_K | BPF_ALU means A ^= imm32 in classic BPF and analogous
+src_reg = (u32) src_reg ^ (u32) imm32 in eBPF.
+
+Classic BPF is using BPF_MISC class to represent A = X and X = A moves.
+eBPF is using BPF_MOV | BPF_X | BPF_ALU code instead. Since there are no
+BPF_MISC operations in eBPF, the class 7 is used as BPF_ALU64 to mean
+exactly the same operations as BPF_ALU, but with 64-bit wide operands
+instead. So BPF_ADD | BPF_X | BPF_ALU64 means 64-bit addition, i.e.:
+dst_reg = dst_reg + src_reg
+
+Classic BPF wastes the whole BPF_RET class to represent a single 'ret'
+operation. Classic BPF_RET | BPF_K means copy imm32 into return register
+and perform function exit. eBPF is modeled to match CPU, so BPF_JMP | BPF_EXIT
+in eBPF means function exit only. The eBPF program needs to store return
+value into register R0 before doing a BPF_EXIT. Class 6 in eBPF is currently
+unused and reserved for future use.
+
+For load and store instructions the 8-bit 'code' field is divided as:
+
+ +--------+--------+-------------------+
+ | 3 bits | 2 bits | 3 bits |
+ | mode | size | instruction class |
+ +--------+--------+-------------------+
+ (MSB) (LSB)
+
+Size modifier is one of ...
+
+ BPF_W 0x00 /* word */
+ BPF_H 0x08 /* half word */
+ BPF_B 0x10 /* byte */
+ BPF_DW 0x18 /* eBPF only, double word */
+
+... which encodes size of load/store operation:
+
+ B - 1 byte
+ H - 2 byte
+ W - 4 byte
+ DW - 8 byte (eBPF only)
+
+Mode modifier is one of:
+
+ BPF_IMM 0x00 /* classic BPF only, reserved in eBPF */
+ BPF_ABS 0x20
+ BPF_IND 0x40
+ BPF_MEM 0x60
+ BPF_LEN 0x80 /* classic BPF only, reserved in eBPF */
+ BPF_MSH 0xa0 /* classic BPF only, reserved in eBPF */
+ BPF_XADD 0xc0 /* eBPF only, exclusive add */
+
+eBPF has two non-generic instructions: (BPF_ABS | <size> | BPF_LD) and
+(BPF_IND | <size> | BPF_LD) which are used to access packet data.
+
+They had to be carried over from classic to have strong performance of
+socket filters running in eBPF interpreter. These instructions can only
+be used when interpreter context is a pointer to 'struct sk_buff' and
+have seven implicit operands. Register R6 is an implicit input that must
+contain pointer to sk_buff. Register R0 is an implicit output which contains
+the data fetched from the packet. Registers R1-R5 are scratch registers
+and must not be used to store the data across BPF_ABS | BPF_LD or
+BPF_IND | BPF_LD instructions.
+
+These instructions have implicit program exit condition as well. When
+eBPF program is trying to access the data beyond the packet boundary,
+the interpreter will abort the execution of the program. JIT compilers
+therefore must preserve this property. src_reg and imm32 fields are
+explicit inputs to these instructions.
+
+For example:
+
+ BPF_IND | BPF_W | BPF_LD means:
+
+ R0 = ntohl(*(u32 *) (((struct sk_buff *) R6)->data + src_reg + imm32))
+ and R1 - R5 were scratched.
+
+Unlike classic BPF instruction set, eBPF has generic load/store operations:
+
+BPF_MEM | <size> | BPF_STX: *(size *) (dst_reg + off) = src_reg
+BPF_MEM | <size> | BPF_ST: *(size *) (dst_reg + off) = imm32
+BPF_MEM | <size> | BPF_LDX: dst_reg = *(size *) (src_reg + off)
+BPF_XADD | BPF_W | BPF_STX: lock xadd *(u32 *)(dst_reg + off16) += src_reg
+BPF_XADD | BPF_DW | BPF_STX: lock xadd *(u64 *)(dst_reg + off16) += src_reg
+
+Where size is one of: BPF_B or BPF_H or BPF_W or BPF_DW. Note that 1 and
+2 byte atomic increments are not supported.
+
Testing
-------