aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/tools
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2019-05-06 12:04:02 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2019-05-06 12:04:02 -0700
commit5ba2a4b12f450c5c69099a5c19671c6e59daa435 (patch)
tree3abb06f1a048922ea693e6cc43bf2f41c08afbbb /tools
parentMerge branch 'core-objtool-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip (diff)
parentMerge branch 'for-mingo' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/paulmck/linux-rcu into core/rcu (diff)
downloadlinux-dev-5ba2a4b12f450c5c69099a5c19671c6e59daa435.tar.xz
linux-dev-5ba2a4b12f450c5c69099a5c19671c6e59daa435.zip
Merge branch 'core-rcu-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip
Pull RCU updates from Ingo Molnar: "This cycles's RCU changes include: - a couple of straggling RCU flavor consolidation updates - SRCU updates - RCU CPU stall-warning updates - torture-test updates - an LKMM commit adding support for synchronize_srcu_expedited() - documentation updates - miscellaneous fixes" * 'core-rcu-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (57 commits) net/ipv4/netfilter: Update comment from call_rcu_bh() to call_rcu() tools/memory-model: Add support for synchronize_srcu_expedited() doc/kprobes: Update obsolete RCU update functions torture: Suppress false-positive CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE complaint locktorture: NULL cxt.lwsa and cxt.lrsa to allow bad-arg detection rcuperf: Fix cleanup path for invalid perf_type strings rcutorture: Fix cleanup path for invalid torture_type strings rcutorture: Fix expected forward progress duration in OOM notifier rcutorture: Remove ->ext_irq_conflict field rcutorture: Make rcutorture_extend_mask() comment match the code tools/.../rcutorture: Convert to SPDX license identifier torture: Don't try to offline the last CPU rcu: Fix nohz status in stall warning rcu: Move forward-progress checkers into tree_stall.h rcu: Move irq-disabled stall-warning checking to tree_stall.h rcu: Organize functions in tree_stall.h rcu: Move FAST_NO_HZ stall-warning code to tree_stall.h rcu: Inline RCU stall-warning info helper functions rcu: Move rcu_print_task_exp_stall() to tree_exp.h rcu: Inline RCU task stall-warning helper functions ...
Diffstat (limited to 'tools')
-rw-r--r--tools/memory-model/Documentation/explanation.txt289
-rw-r--r--tools/memory-model/README33
-rw-r--r--tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.bell35
-rw-r--r--tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat39
-rw-r--r--tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.def6
-rw-r--r--tools/memory-model/lock.cat3
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configNR_CPUS.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/config_override.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configcheck.sh19
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configinit.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/cpus2use.sh17
-rw-r--r--tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/functions.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/jitter.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-build.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-find-errors.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-lock.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcu.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf-ftrace.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-test-1-run.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/mkinitrd.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-build.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xtools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-console.sh17
-rw-r--r--tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/lock/ver_functions.sh17
-rw-r--r--tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcu/ver_functions.sh17
-rw-r--r--tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcuperf/ver_functions.sh17
28 files changed, 292 insertions, 475 deletions
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/Documentation/explanation.txt b/tools/memory-model/Documentation/explanation.txt
index 35bff92cc773..68caa9a976d0 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/Documentation/explanation.txt
+++ b/tools/memory-model/Documentation/explanation.txt
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ Explanation of the Linux-Kernel Memory Consistency Model
19. AND THEN THERE WAS ALPHA
20. THE HAPPENS-BEFORE RELATION: hb
21. THE PROPAGATES-BEFORE RELATION: pb
- 22. RCU RELATIONS: rcu-link, gp, rscs, rcu-fence, and rb
+ 22. RCU RELATIONS: rcu-link, rcu-gp, rcu-rscsi, rcu-fence, and rb
23. LOCKING
24. ODDS AND ENDS
@@ -1430,8 +1430,8 @@ they execute means that it cannot have cycles. This requirement is
the content of the LKMM's "propagation" axiom.
-RCU RELATIONS: rcu-link, gp, rscs, rcu-fence, and rb
-----------------------------------------------------
+RCU RELATIONS: rcu-link, rcu-gp, rcu-rscsi, rcu-fence, and rb
+-------------------------------------------------------------
RCU (Read-Copy-Update) is a powerful synchronization mechanism. It
rests on two concepts: grace periods and read-side critical sections.
@@ -1446,17 +1446,19 @@ As far as memory models are concerned, RCU's main feature is its
Grace-Period Guarantee, which states that a critical section can never
span a full grace period. In more detail, the Guarantee says:
- If a critical section starts before a grace period then it
- must end before the grace period does. In addition, every
- store that propagates to the critical section's CPU before the
- end of the critical section must propagate to every CPU before
- the end of the grace period.
+ For any critical section C and any grace period G, at least
+ one of the following statements must hold:
- If a critical section ends after a grace period ends then it
- must start after the grace period does. In addition, every
- store that propagates to the grace period's CPU before the
- start of the grace period must propagate to every CPU before
- the start of the critical section.
+(1) C ends before G does, and in addition, every store that
+ propagates to C's CPU before the end of C must propagate to
+ every CPU before G ends.
+
+(2) G starts before C does, and in addition, every store that
+ propagates to G's CPU before the start of G must propagate
+ to every CPU before C starts.
+
+In particular, it is not possible for a critical section to both start
+before and end after a grace period.
Here is a simple example of RCU in action:
@@ -1483,10 +1485,11 @@ The Grace Period Guarantee tells us that when this code runs, it will
never end with r1 = 1 and r2 = 0. The reasoning is as follows. r1 = 1
means that P0's store to x propagated to P1 before P1 called
synchronize_rcu(), so P0's critical section must have started before
-P1's grace period. On the other hand, r2 = 0 means that P0's store to
-y, which occurs before the end of the critical section, did not
-propagate to P1 before the end of the grace period, violating the
-Guarantee.
+P1's grace period, contrary to part (2) of the Guarantee. On the
+other hand, r2 = 0 means that P0's store to y, which occurs before the
+end of the critical section, did not propagate to P1 before the end of
+the grace period, contrary to part (1). Together the results violate
+the Guarantee.
In the kernel's implementations of RCU, the requirements for stores
to propagate to every CPU are fulfilled by placing strong fences at
@@ -1504,11 +1507,11 @@ before" or "ends after" a grace period? Some aspects of the meaning
are pretty obvious, as in the example above, but the details aren't
entirely clear. The LKMM formalizes this notion by means of the
rcu-link relation. rcu-link encompasses a very general notion of
-"before": Among other things, X ->rcu-link Z includes cases where X
-happens-before or is equal to some event Y which is equal to or comes
-before Z in the coherence order. When Y = Z this says that X ->rfe Z
-implies X ->rcu-link Z. In addition, when Y = X it says that X ->fr Z
-and X ->co Z each imply X ->rcu-link Z.
+"before": If E and F are RCU fence events (i.e., rcu_read_lock(),
+rcu_read_unlock(), or synchronize_rcu()) then among other things,
+E ->rcu-link F includes cases where E is po-before some memory-access
+event X, F is po-after some memory-access event Y, and we have any of
+X ->rfe Y, X ->co Y, or X ->fr Y.
The formal definition of the rcu-link relation is more than a little
obscure, and we won't give it here. It is closely related to the pb
@@ -1516,171 +1519,173 @@ relation, and the details don't matter unless you want to comb through
a somewhat lengthy formal proof. Pretty much all you need to know
about rcu-link is the information in the preceding paragraph.
-The LKMM also defines the gp and rscs relations. They bring grace
-periods and read-side critical sections into the picture, in the
+The LKMM also defines the rcu-gp and rcu-rscsi relations. They bring
+grace periods and read-side critical sections into the picture, in the
following way:
- E ->gp F means there is a synchronize_rcu() fence event S such
- that E ->po S and either S ->po F or S = F. In simple terms,
- there is a grace period po-between E and F.
+ E ->rcu-gp F means that E and F are in fact the same event,
+ and that event is a synchronize_rcu() fence (i.e., a grace
+ period).
- E ->rscs F means there is a critical section delimited by an
- rcu_read_lock() fence L and an rcu_read_unlock() fence U, such
- that E ->po U and either L ->po F or L = F. You can think of
- this as saying that E and F are in the same critical section
- (in fact, it also allows E to be po-before the start of the
- critical section and F to be po-after the end).
+ E ->rcu-rscsi F means that E and F are the rcu_read_unlock()
+ and rcu_read_lock() fence events delimiting some read-side
+ critical section. (The 'i' at the end of the name emphasizes
+ that this relation is "inverted": It links the end of the
+ critical section to the start.)
If we think of the rcu-link relation as standing for an extended
-"before", then X ->gp Y ->rcu-link Z says that X executes before a
-grace period which ends before Z executes. (In fact it covers more
-than this, because it also includes cases where X executes before a
-grace period and some store propagates to Z's CPU before Z executes
-but doesn't propagate to some other CPU until after the grace period
-ends.) Similarly, X ->rscs Y ->rcu-link Z says that X is part of (or
-before the start of) a critical section which starts before Z
-executes.
-
-The LKMM goes on to define the rcu-fence relation as a sequence of gp
-and rscs links separated by rcu-link links, in which the number of gp
-links is >= the number of rscs links. For example:
+"before", then X ->rcu-gp Y ->rcu-link Z roughly says that X is a
+grace period which ends before Z begins. (In fact it covers more than
+this, because it also includes cases where some store propagates to
+Z's CPU before Z begins but doesn't propagate to some other CPU until
+after X ends.) Similarly, X ->rcu-rscsi Y ->rcu-link Z says that X is
+the end of a critical section which starts before Z begins.
+
+The LKMM goes on to define the rcu-fence relation as a sequence of
+rcu-gp and rcu-rscsi links separated by rcu-link links, in which the
+number of rcu-gp links is >= the number of rcu-rscsi links. For
+example:
- X ->gp Y ->rcu-link Z ->rscs T ->rcu-link U ->gp V
+ X ->rcu-gp Y ->rcu-link Z ->rcu-rscsi T ->rcu-link U ->rcu-gp V
would imply that X ->rcu-fence V, because this sequence contains two
-gp links and only one rscs link. (It also implies that X ->rcu-fence T
-and Z ->rcu-fence V.) On the other hand:
+rcu-gp links and one rcu-rscsi link. (It also implies that
+X ->rcu-fence T and Z ->rcu-fence V.) On the other hand:
- X ->rscs Y ->rcu-link Z ->rscs T ->rcu-link U ->gp V
+ X ->rcu-rscsi Y ->rcu-link Z ->rcu-rscsi T ->rcu-link U ->rcu-gp V
does not imply X ->rcu-fence V, because the sequence contains only
-one gp link but two rscs links.
+one rcu-gp link but two rcu-rscsi links.
The rcu-fence relation is important because the Grace Period Guarantee
means that rcu-fence acts kind of like a strong fence. In particular,
-if W is a write and we have W ->rcu-fence Z, the Guarantee says that W
-will propagate to every CPU before Z executes.
+E ->rcu-fence F implies not only that E begins before F ends, but also
+that any write po-before E will propagate to every CPU before any
+instruction po-after F can execute. (However, it does not imply that
+E must execute before F; in fact, each synchronize_rcu() fence event
+is linked to itself by rcu-fence as a degenerate case.)
To prove this in full generality requires some intellectual effort.
We'll consider just a very simple case:
- W ->gp X ->rcu-link Y ->rscs Z.
+ G ->rcu-gp W ->rcu-link Z ->rcu-rscsi F.
-This formula means that there is a grace period G and a critical
-section C such that:
+This formula means that G and W are the same event (a grace period),
+and there are events X, Y and a read-side critical section C such that:
- 1. W is po-before G;
+ 1. G = W is po-before or equal to X;
- 2. X is equal to or po-after G;
+ 2. X comes "before" Y in some sense (including rfe, co and fr);
- 3. X comes "before" Y in some sense;
+ 2. Y is po-before Z;
- 4. Y is po-before the end of C;
+ 4. Z is the rcu_read_unlock() event marking the end of C;
- 5. Z is equal to or po-after the start of C.
+ 5. F is the rcu_read_lock() event marking the start of C.
-From 2 - 4 we deduce that the grace period G ends before the critical
-section C. Then the second part of the Grace Period Guarantee says
-not only that G starts before C does, but also that W (which executes
-on G's CPU before G starts) must propagate to every CPU before C
-starts. In particular, W propagates to every CPU before Z executes
-(or finishes executing, in the case where Z is equal to the
-rcu_read_lock() fence event which starts C.) This sort of reasoning
-can be expanded to handle all the situations covered by rcu-fence.
+From 1 - 4 we deduce that the grace period G ends before the critical
+section C. Then part (2) of the Grace Period Guarantee says not only
+that G starts before C does, but also that any write which executes on
+G's CPU before G starts must propagate to every CPU before C starts.
+In particular, the write propagates to every CPU before F finishes
+executing and hence before any instruction po-after F can execute.
+This sort of reasoning can be extended to handle all the situations
+covered by rcu-fence.
Finally, the LKMM defines the RCU-before (rb) relation in terms of
rcu-fence. This is done in essentially the same way as the pb
relation was defined in terms of strong-fence. We will omit the
-details; the end result is that E ->rb F implies E must execute before
-F, just as E ->pb F does (and for much the same reasons).
+details; the end result is that E ->rb F implies E must execute
+before F, just as E ->pb F does (and for much the same reasons).
Putting this all together, the LKMM expresses the Grace Period
Guarantee by requiring that the rb relation does not contain a cycle.
-Equivalently, this "rcu" axiom requires that there are no events E and
-F with E ->rcu-link F ->rcu-fence E. Or to put it a third way, the
-axiom requires that there are no cycles consisting of gp and rscs
-alternating with rcu-link, where the number of gp links is >= the
-number of rscs links.
+Equivalently, this "rcu" axiom requires that there are no events E
+and F with E ->rcu-link F ->rcu-fence E. Or to put it a third way,
+the axiom requires that there are no cycles consisting of rcu-gp and
+rcu-rscsi alternating with rcu-link, where the number of rcu-gp links
+is >= the number of rcu-rscsi links.
Justifying the axiom isn't easy, but it is in fact a valid
formalization of the Grace Period Guarantee. We won't attempt to go
through the detailed argument, but the following analysis gives a
-taste of what is involved. Suppose we have a violation of the first
-part of the Guarantee: A critical section starts before a grace
-period, and some store propagates to the critical section's CPU before
-the end of the critical section but doesn't propagate to some other
-CPU until after the end of the grace period.
+taste of what is involved. Suppose both parts of the Guarantee are
+violated: A critical section starts before a grace period, and some
+store propagates to the critical section's CPU before the end of the
+critical section but doesn't propagate to some other CPU until after
+the end of the grace period.
Putting symbols to these ideas, let L and U be the rcu_read_lock() and
rcu_read_unlock() fence events delimiting the critical section in
question, and let S be the synchronize_rcu() fence event for the grace
period. Saying that the critical section starts before S means there
-are events E and F where E is po-after L (which marks the start of the
-critical section), E is "before" F in the sense of the rcu-link
-relation, and F is po-before the grace period S:
+are events Q and R where Q is po-after L (which marks the start of the
+critical section), Q is "before" R in the sense used by the rcu-link
+relation, and R is po-before the grace period S. Thus we have:
- L ->po E ->rcu-link F ->po S.
+ L ->rcu-link S.
-Let W be the store mentioned above, let Z come before the end of the
+Let W be the store mentioned above, let Y come before the end of the
critical section and witness that W propagates to the critical
-section's CPU by reading from W, and let Y on some arbitrary CPU be a
-witness that W has not propagated to that CPU, where Y happens after
+section's CPU by reading from W, and let Z on some arbitrary CPU be a
+witness that W has not propagated to that CPU, where Z happens after
some event X which is po-after S. Symbolically, this amounts to:
- S ->po X ->hb* Y ->fr W ->rf Z ->po U.
+ S ->po X ->hb* Z ->fr W ->rf Y ->po U.
-The fr link from Y to W indicates that W has not propagated to Y's CPU
-at the time that Y executes. From this, it can be shown (see the
-discussion of the rcu-link relation earlier) that X and Z are related
-by rcu-link, yielding:
+The fr link from Z to W indicates that W has not propagated to Z's CPU
+at the time that Z executes. From this, it can be shown (see the
+discussion of the rcu-link relation earlier) that S and U are related
+by rcu-link:
- S ->po X ->rcu-link Z ->po U.
+ S ->rcu-link U.
-The formulas say that S is po-between F and X, hence F ->gp X. They
-also say that Z comes before the end of the critical section and E
-comes after its start, hence Z ->rscs E. From all this we obtain:
+Since S is a grace period we have S ->rcu-gp S, and since L and U are
+the start and end of the critical section C we have U ->rcu-rscsi L.
+From this we obtain:
- F ->gp X ->rcu-link Z ->rscs E ->rcu-link F,
+ S ->rcu-gp S ->rcu-link U ->rcu-rscsi L ->rcu-link S,
a forbidden cycle. Thus the "rcu" axiom rules out this violation of
the Grace Period Guarantee.
For something a little more down-to-earth, let's see how the axiom
works out in practice. Consider the RCU code example from above, this
-time with statement labels added to the memory access instructions:
+time with statement labels added:
int x, y;
P0()
{
- rcu_read_lock();
- W: WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
- X: WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
- rcu_read_unlock();
+ L: rcu_read_lock();
+ X: WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+ Y: WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+ U: rcu_read_unlock();
}
P1()
{
int r1, r2;
- Y: r1 = READ_ONCE(x);
- synchronize_rcu();
- Z: r2 = READ_ONCE(y);
+ Z: r1 = READ_ONCE(x);
+ S: synchronize_rcu();
+ W: r2 = READ_ONCE(y);
}
-If r2 = 0 at the end then P0's store at X overwrites the value that
-P1's load at Z reads from, so we have Z ->fre X and thus Z ->rcu-link X.
-In addition, there is a synchronize_rcu() between Y and Z, so therefore
-we have Y ->gp Z.
+If r2 = 0 at the end then P0's store at Y overwrites the value that
+P1's load at W reads from, so we have W ->fre Y. Since S ->po W and
+also Y ->po U, we get S ->rcu-link U. In addition, S ->rcu-gp S
+because S is a grace period.
-If r1 = 1 at the end then P1's load at Y reads from P0's store at W,
-so we have W ->rcu-link Y. In addition, W and X are in the same critical
-section, so therefore we have X ->rscs W.
+If r1 = 1 at the end then P1's load at Z reads from P0's store at X,
+so we have X ->rfe Z. Together with L ->po X and Z ->po S, this
+yields L ->rcu-link S. And since L and U are the start and end of a
+critical section, we have U ->rcu-rscsi L.
-Then X ->rscs W ->rcu-link Y ->gp Z ->rcu-link X is a forbidden cycle,
-violating the "rcu" axiom. Hence the outcome is not allowed by the
-LKMM, as we would expect.
+Then U ->rcu-rscsi L ->rcu-link S ->rcu-gp S ->rcu-link U is a
+forbidden cycle, violating the "rcu" axiom. Hence the outcome is not
+allowed by the LKMM, as we would expect.
For contrast, let's see what can happen in a more complicated example:
@@ -1690,51 +1695,52 @@ For contrast, let's see what can happen in a more complicated example:
{
int r0;
- rcu_read_lock();
- W: r0 = READ_ONCE(x);
- X: WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
- rcu_read_unlock();
+ L0: rcu_read_lock();
+ r0 = READ_ONCE(x);
+ WRITE_ONCE(y, 1);
+ U0: rcu_read_unlock();
}
P1()
{
int r1;
- Y: r1 = READ_ONCE(y);
- synchronize_rcu();
- Z: WRITE_ONCE(z, 1);
+ r1 = READ_ONCE(y);
+ S1: synchronize_rcu();
+ WRITE_ONCE(z, 1);
}
P2()
{
int r2;
- rcu_read_lock();
- U: r2 = READ_ONCE(z);
- V: WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
- rcu_read_unlock();
+ L2: rcu_read_lock();
+ r2 = READ_ONCE(z);
+ WRITE_ONCE(x, 1);
+ U2: rcu_read_unlock();
}
If r0 = r1 = r2 = 1 at the end, then similar reasoning to before shows
-that W ->rscs X ->rcu-link Y ->gp Z ->rcu-link U ->rscs V ->rcu-link W.
-However this cycle is not forbidden, because the sequence of relations
-contains fewer instances of gp (one) than of rscs (two). Consequently
-the outcome is allowed by the LKMM. The following instruction timing
-diagram shows how it might actually occur:
+that U0 ->rcu-rscsi L0 ->rcu-link S1 ->rcu-gp S1 ->rcu-link U2 ->rcu-rscsi
+L2 ->rcu-link U0. However this cycle is not forbidden, because the
+sequence of relations contains fewer instances of rcu-gp (one) than of
+rcu-rscsi (two). Consequently the outcome is allowed by the LKMM.
+The following instruction timing diagram shows how it might actually
+occur:
P0 P1 P2
-------------------- -------------------- --------------------
rcu_read_lock()
-X: WRITE_ONCE(y, 1)
- Y: r1 = READ_ONCE(y)
+WRITE_ONCE(y, 1)
+ r1 = READ_ONCE(y)
synchronize_rcu() starts
. rcu_read_lock()
- . V: WRITE_ONCE(x, 1)
-W: r0 = READ_ONCE(x) .
+ . WRITE_ONCE(x, 1)
+r0 = READ_ONCE(x) .
rcu_read_unlock() .
synchronize_rcu() ends
- Z: WRITE_ONCE(z, 1)
- U: r2 = READ_ONCE(z)
+ WRITE_ONCE(z, 1)
+ r2 = READ_ONCE(z)
rcu_read_unlock()
This requires P0 and P2 to execute their loads and stores out of
@@ -1744,6 +1750,15 @@ section in P0 both starts before P1's grace period does and ends
before it does, and the critical section in P2 both starts after P1's
grace period does and ends after it does.
+Addendum: The LKMM now supports SRCU (Sleepable Read-Copy-Update) in
+addition to normal RCU. The ideas involved are much the same as
+above, with new relations srcu-gp and srcu-rscsi added to represent
+SRCU grace periods and read-side critical sections. There is a
+restriction on the srcu-gp and srcu-rscsi links that can appear in an
+rcu-fence sequence (the srcu-rscsi links must be paired with srcu-gp
+links having the same SRCU domain with proper nesting); the details
+are relatively unimportant.
+
LOCKING
-------
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/README b/tools/memory-model/README
index 0f2c366518c6..2b87f3971548 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/README
+++ b/tools/memory-model/README
@@ -20,13 +20,17 @@ that litmus test to be exercised within the Linux kernel.
REQUIREMENTS
============
-Version 7.49 of the "herd7" and "klitmus7" tools must be downloaded
-separately:
+Version 7.52 or higher of the "herd7" and "klitmus7" tools must be
+downloaded separately:
https://github.com/herd/herdtools7
See "herdtools7/INSTALL.md" for installation instructions.
+Note that although these tools usually provide backwards compatibility,
+this is not absolutely guaranteed. Therefore, if a later version does
+not work, please try using the exact version called out above.
+
==================
BASIC USAGE: HERD7
@@ -221,8 +225,29 @@ The Linux-kernel memory model has the following limitations:
additional call_rcu() process to the site of the
emulated rcu-barrier().
- e. Sleepable RCU (SRCU) is not modeled. It can be
- emulated, but perhaps not simply.
+ e. Although sleepable RCU (SRCU) is now modeled, there
+ are some subtle differences between its semantics and
+ those in the Linux kernel. For example, the kernel
+ might interpret the following sequence as two partially
+ overlapping SRCU read-side critical sections:
+
+ 1 r1 = srcu_read_lock(&my_srcu);
+ 2 do_something_1();
+ 3 r2 = srcu_read_lock(&my_srcu);
+ 4 do_something_2();
+ 5 srcu_read_unlock(&my_srcu, r1);
+ 6 do_something_3();
+ 7 srcu_read_unlock(&my_srcu, r2);
+
+ In contrast, LKMM will interpret this as a nested pair of
+ SRCU read-side critical sections, with the outer critical
+ section spanning lines 1-7 and the inner critical section
+ spanning lines 3-5.
+
+ This difference would be more of a concern had anyone
+ identified a reasonable use case for partially overlapping
+ SRCU read-side critical sections. For more information,
+ please see: https://paulmck.livejournal.com/40593.html
f. Reader-writer locking is not modeled. It can be
emulated in litmus tests using atomic read-modify-write
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.bell b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.bell
index 796513362c05..def9131d3d8e 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.bell
+++ b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.bell
@@ -33,8 +33,14 @@ enum Barriers = 'wmb (*smp_wmb*) ||
'after-unlock-lock (*smp_mb__after_unlock_lock*)
instructions F[Barriers]
+(* SRCU *)
+enum SRCU = 'srcu-lock || 'srcu-unlock || 'sync-srcu
+instructions SRCU[SRCU]
+(* All srcu events *)
+let Srcu = Srcu-lock | Srcu-unlock | Sync-srcu
+
(* Compute matching pairs of nested Rcu-lock and Rcu-unlock *)
-let matched = let rec
+let rcu-rscs = let rec
unmatched-locks = Rcu-lock \ domain(matched)
and unmatched-unlocks = Rcu-unlock \ range(matched)
and unmatched = unmatched-locks | unmatched-unlocks
@@ -46,8 +52,27 @@ let matched = let rec
in matched
(* Validate nesting *)
-flag ~empty Rcu-lock \ domain(matched) as unbalanced-rcu-locking
-flag ~empty Rcu-unlock \ range(matched) as unbalanced-rcu-locking
+flag ~empty Rcu-lock \ domain(rcu-rscs) as unbalanced-rcu-locking
+flag ~empty Rcu-unlock \ range(rcu-rscs) as unbalanced-rcu-locking
+
+(* Compute matching pairs of nested Srcu-lock and Srcu-unlock *)
+let srcu-rscs = let rec
+ unmatched-locks = Srcu-lock \ domain(matched)
+ and unmatched-unlocks = Srcu-unlock \ range(matched)
+ and unmatched = unmatched-locks | unmatched-unlocks
+ and unmatched-po = ([unmatched] ; po ; [unmatched]) & loc
+ and unmatched-locks-to-unlocks =
+ ([unmatched-locks] ; po ; [unmatched-unlocks]) & loc
+ and matched = matched | (unmatched-locks-to-unlocks \
+ (unmatched-po ; unmatched-po))
+ in matched
+
+(* Validate nesting *)
+flag ~empty Srcu-lock \ domain(srcu-rscs) as unbalanced-srcu-locking
+flag ~empty Srcu-unlock \ range(srcu-rscs) as unbalanced-srcu-locking
+
+(* Check for use of synchronize_srcu() inside an RCU critical section *)
+flag ~empty rcu-rscs & (po ; [Sync-srcu] ; po) as invalid-sleep
-(* Outermost level of nesting only *)
-let crit = matched \ (po^-1 ; matched ; po^-1)
+(* Validate SRCU dynamic match *)
+flag ~empty different-values(srcu-rscs) as srcu-bad-nesting
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
index 8f23c74a96fd..8dcb37835b61 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
+++ b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.cat
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ let mb = ([M] ; fencerel(Mb) ; [M]) |
([M] ; po? ; [LKW] ; fencerel(After-spinlock) ; [M]) |
([M] ; po ; [UL] ; (co | po) ; [LKW] ;
fencerel(After-unlock-lock) ; [M])
-let gp = po ; [Sync-rcu] ; po?
+let gp = po ; [Sync-rcu | Sync-srcu] ; po?
let strong-fence = mb | gp
@@ -91,32 +91,47 @@ acyclic pb as propagation
(*******)
(*
- * Effect of read-side critical section proceeds from the rcu_read_lock()
- * onward on the one hand and from the rcu_read_unlock() backwards on the
- * other hand.
+ * Effects of read-side critical sections proceed from the rcu_read_unlock()
+ * or srcu_read_unlock() backwards on the one hand, and from the
+ * rcu_read_lock() or srcu_read_lock() forwards on the other hand.
+ *
+ * In the definition of rcu-fence below, the po term at the left-hand side
+ * of each disjunct and the po? term at the right-hand end have been factored
+ * out. They have been moved into the definitions of rcu-link and rb.
+ * This was necessary in order to apply the "& loc" tests correctly.
*)
-let rscs = po ; crit^-1 ; po?
+let rcu-gp = [Sync-rcu] (* Compare with gp *)
+let srcu-gp = [Sync-srcu]
+let rcu-rscsi = rcu-rscs^-1
+let srcu-rscsi = srcu-rscs^-1
(*
* The synchronize_rcu() strong fence is special in that it can order not
* one but two non-rf relations, but only in conjunction with an RCU
* read-side critical section.
*)
-let rcu-link = hb* ; pb* ; prop
+let rcu-link = po? ; hb* ; pb* ; prop ; po
(*
* Any sequence containing at least as many grace periods as RCU read-side
* critical sections (joined by rcu-link) acts as a generalized strong fence.
+ * Likewise for SRCU grace periods and read-side critical sections, provided
+ * the synchronize_srcu() and srcu_read_[un]lock() calls refer to the same
+ * struct srcu_struct location.
*)
-let rec rcu-fence = gp |
- (gp ; rcu-link ; rscs) |
- (rscs ; rcu-link ; gp) |
- (gp ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; rscs) |
- (rscs ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; gp) |
+let rec rcu-fence = rcu-gp | srcu-gp |
+ (rcu-gp ; rcu-link ; rcu-rscsi) |
+ ((srcu-gp ; rcu-link ; srcu-rscsi) & loc) |
+ (rcu-rscsi ; rcu-link ; rcu-gp) |
+ ((srcu-rscsi ; rcu-link ; srcu-gp) & loc) |
+ (rcu-gp ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; rcu-rscsi) |
+ ((srcu-gp ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; srcu-rscsi) & loc) |
+ (rcu-rscsi ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; rcu-gp) |
+ ((srcu-rscsi ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; srcu-gp) & loc) |
(rcu-fence ; rcu-link ; rcu-fence)
(* rb orders instructions just as pb does *)
-let rb = prop ; rcu-fence ; hb* ; pb*
+let rb = prop ; po ; rcu-fence ; po? ; hb* ; pb*
irreflexive rb as rcu
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.def b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.def
index b27911cc087d..551eeaa389d4 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.def
+++ b/tools/memory-model/linux-kernel.def
@@ -47,6 +47,12 @@ rcu_read_unlock() { __fence{rcu-unlock}; }
synchronize_rcu() { __fence{sync-rcu}; }
synchronize_rcu_expedited() { __fence{sync-rcu}; }
+// SRCU
+srcu_read_lock(X) __srcu{srcu-lock}(X)
+srcu_read_unlock(X,Y) { __srcu{srcu-unlock}(X,Y); }
+synchronize_srcu(X) { __srcu{sync-srcu}(X); }
+synchronize_srcu_expedited(X) { __srcu{sync-srcu}(X); }
+
// Atomic
atomic_read(X) READ_ONCE(*X)
atomic_set(X,V) { WRITE_ONCE(*X,V); }
diff --git a/tools/memory-model/lock.cat b/tools/memory-model/lock.cat
index 305ded17e741..a059d1a6d8a2 100644
--- a/tools/memory-model/lock.cat
+++ b/tools/memory-model/lock.cat
@@ -6,9 +6,6 @@
(*
* Generate coherence orders and handle lock operations
- *
- * Warning: spin_is_locked() crashes herd7 versions strictly before 7.48.
- * spin_is_locked() is functional from herd7 version 7.49.
*)
include "cross.cat"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configNR_CPUS.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configNR_CPUS.sh
index 43540f1828cc..2deea2169fc2 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configNR_CPUS.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configNR_CPUS.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Extract the number of CPUs expected from the specified Kconfig-file
# fragment by checking CONFIG_SMP and CONFIG_NR_CPUS. If the specified
@@ -7,23 +8,9 @@
#
# Usage: configNR_CPUS.sh config-frag
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2013
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
cf=$1
if test ! -r $cf
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/config_override.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/config_override.sh
index ef7fcbac3d42..90016c359e83 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/config_override.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/config_override.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# config_override.sh base override
#
@@ -6,23 +7,9 @@
# that conflict with any in override, concatenating what remains and
# sending the result to standard output.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2017
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
base=$1
if test -r $base
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configcheck.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configcheck.sh
index 197deece7c7c..31584cee84d7 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configcheck.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configcheck.sh
@@ -1,23 +1,11 @@
#!/bin/bash
-# Usage: configcheck.sh .config .config-template
-#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
+# Usage: configcheck.sh .config .config-template
#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
T=${TMPDIR-/tmp}/abat-chk-config.sh.$$
trap 'rm -rf $T' 0
@@ -26,6 +14,7 @@ mkdir $T
cat $1 > $T/.config
cat $2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\)=n/# \1 is not set/' -e 's/^#CHECK#//' |
+grep -v '^CONFIG_INITRAMFS_SOURCE' |
awk '
{
print "if grep -q \"" $0 "\" < '"$T/.config"'";
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configinit.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configinit.sh
index 65541c21a544..40359486b3a8 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configinit.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/configinit.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Usage: configinit.sh config-spec-file build-output-dir results-dir
#
@@ -14,23 +15,9 @@
# for example, "O=/tmp/foo". If this argument is omitted, the .config
# file will be generated directly in the current directory.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2013
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
T=${TMPDIR-/tmp}/configinit.sh.$$
trap 'rm -rf $T' 0
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/cpus2use.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/cpus2use.sh
index bb99cde3f5f9..ff7102212703 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/cpus2use.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/cpus2use.sh
@@ -1,26 +1,13 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Get an estimate of how CPU-hoggy to be.
#
# Usage: cpus2use.sh
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2013
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
ncpus=`grep '^processor' /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l`
idlecpus=`mpstat | tail -1 | \
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/functions.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/functions.sh
index 65f6655026f0..6bcb8b5b2ff2 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/functions.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/functions.sh
@@ -1,24 +1,11 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Shell functions for the rest of the scripts.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2013
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
# bootparam_hotplug_cpu bootparam-string
#
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/jitter.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/jitter.sh
index 3633828375e3..435b60933985 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/jitter.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/jitter.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Alternate sleeping and spinning on randomly selected CPUs. The purpose
# of this script is to inflict random OS jitter on a concurrently running
@@ -11,23 +12,9 @@
# sleepmax: Maximum microseconds to sleep, defaults to one second.
# spinmax: Maximum microseconds to spin, defaults to one millisecond.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2016
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
me=$(($1 * 1000))
duration=$2
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-build.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-build.sh
index 9115fcdb5617..c27a0bbb9c02 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-build.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-build.sh
@@ -1,26 +1,13 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Build a kvm-ready Linux kernel from the tree in the current directory.
#
# Usage: kvm-build.sh config-template build-dir resdir
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
config_template=${1}
if test -z "$config_template" -o ! -f "$config_template" -o ! -r "$config_template"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-find-errors.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-find-errors.sh
index 98f650c9bf54..8426fe1f15ee 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-find-errors.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-find-errors.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/sh
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Invoke a text editor on all console.log files for all runs with diagnostics,
# that is, on all such files having a console.log.diags counterpart.
@@ -10,6 +11,10 @@
#
# The "directory" above should end with the date/time directory, for example,
# "tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/res/2018.02.25-14:27:27".
+#
+# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2018
+#
+# Author: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
rundir="${1}"
if test -z "$rundir" -o ! -d "$rundir"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-lock.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-lock.sh
index 2de92f43ee8c..f3a7a5e2b89d 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-lock.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-lock.sh
@@ -1,26 +1,13 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Analyze a given results directory for locktorture progress.
#
# Usage: kvm-recheck-lock.sh resdir
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2014
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
i="$1"
if test -d "$i" -a -r "$i"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcu.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcu.sh
index 0fa8a61ccb7b..2a7f3f4756a7 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcu.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcu.sh
@@ -1,26 +1,13 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Analyze a given results directory for rcutorture progress.
#
# Usage: kvm-recheck-rcu.sh resdir
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2014
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
i="$1"
if test -d "$i" -a -r "$i"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf-ftrace.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf-ftrace.sh
index 8948f7926b21..7d3c2be66c64 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf-ftrace.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf-ftrace.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Analyze a given results directory for rcuperf performance measurements,
# looking for ftrace data. Exits with 0 if data was found, analyzed, and
@@ -7,23 +8,9 @@
#
# Usage: kvm-recheck-rcuperf-ftrace.sh resdir
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2016
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
i="$1"
. functions.sh
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf.sh
index ccebf772fa1e..db0375a57f28 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck-rcuperf.sh
@@ -1,26 +1,13 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Analyze a given results directory for rcuperf performance measurements.
#
# Usage: kvm-recheck-rcuperf.sh resdir
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2016
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
i="$1"
if test -d "$i" -a -r "$i"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck.sh
index c9bab57a77eb..2adde6aaafdb 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-recheck.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Given the results directories for previous KVM-based torture runs,
# check the build and console output for errors. Given a directory
@@ -6,23 +7,9 @@
#
# Usage: kvm-recheck.sh resdir ...
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
PATH=`pwd`/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin:$PATH; export PATH
. functions.sh
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-test-1-run.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-test-1-run.sh
index 58ca758a5786..0eb1ec16d78a 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-test-1-run.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm-test-1-run.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Run a kvm-based test of the specified tree on the specified configs.
# Fully automated run and error checking, no graphics console.
@@ -20,23 +21,9 @@
#
# More sophisticated argument parsing is clearly needed.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
T=${TMPDIR-/tmp}/kvm-test-1-run.sh.$$
trap 'rm -rf $T' 0
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm.sh
index 19864f1cb27a..8f1e337b9b54 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/kvm.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Run a series of tests under KVM. By default, this series is specified
# by the relevant CFLIST file, but can be overridden by the --configs
@@ -6,23 +7,9 @@
#
# Usage: kvm.sh [ options ]
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
scriptname=$0
args="$*"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/mkinitrd.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/mkinitrd.sh
index 83552bb007b4..6fa9bd1ddc09 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/mkinitrd.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/mkinitrd.sh
@@ -1,21 +1,8 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Create an initrd directory if one does not already exist.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2013
#
# Author: Connor Shu <Connor.Shu@ibm.com>
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-build.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-build.sh
index 24fe5f822b28..0701b3bf6ade 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-build.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-build.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Check the build output from an rcutorture run for goodness.
# The "file" is a pathname on the local system, and "title" is
@@ -8,23 +9,9 @@
#
# Usage: parse-build.sh file title
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
F=$1
title=$2
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-console.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-console.sh
index 84933f6aed77..4508373a922f 100755
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-console.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/parse-console.sh
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Check the console output from an rcutorture run for oopses.
# The "file" is a pathname on the local system, and "title" is
@@ -6,23 +7,9 @@
#
# Usage: parse-console.sh file title
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2011
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
T=${TMPDIR-/tmp}/parse-console.sh.$$
file="$1"
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/lock/ver_functions.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/lock/ver_functions.sh
index 80eb646e1319..d3e4b2971f92 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/lock/ver_functions.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/lock/ver_functions.sh
@@ -1,24 +1,11 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Kernel-version-dependent shell functions for the rest of the scripts.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2014
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
# locktorture_param_onoff bootparam-string config-file
#
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcu/ver_functions.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcu/ver_functions.sh
index 7bab8246392b..effa415f9b92 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcu/ver_functions.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcu/ver_functions.sh
@@ -1,24 +1,11 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Kernel-version-dependent shell functions for the rest of the scripts.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2013
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
# rcutorture_param_n_barrier_cbs bootparam-string
#
diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcuperf/ver_functions.sh b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcuperf/ver_functions.sh
index d36b8fd6f0fc..777d5b0c190f 100644
--- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcuperf/ver_functions.sh
+++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/configs/rcuperf/ver_functions.sh
@@ -1,24 +1,11 @@
#!/bin/bash
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
#
# Torture-suite-dependent shell functions for the rest of the scripts.
#
-# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
-# (at your option) any later version.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
-# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
-# GNU General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program; if not, you can access it online at
-# http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html.
-#
# Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2015
#
-# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
+# Authors: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.ibm.com>
# per_version_boot_params bootparam-string config-file seconds
#