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-rw-r--r--fs/fs-writeback.c4
-rw-r--r--fs/super.c2
-rw-r--r--include/linux/backing-dev.h4
-rw-r--r--include/linux/flex_proportions.h101
-rw-r--r--lib/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--lib/flex_proportions.c272
-rw-r--r--mm/backing-dev.c6
-rw-r--r--mm/page-writeback.c107
8 files changed, 448 insertions, 50 deletions
diff --git a/fs/fs-writeback.c b/fs/fs-writeback.c
index 8f660dd6137a..50d0b78130a1 100644
--- a/fs/fs-writeback.c
+++ b/fs/fs-writeback.c
@@ -628,8 +628,8 @@ static long writeback_sb_inodes(struct super_block *sb,
}
/*
- * Don't bother with new inodes or inodes beeing freed, first
- * kind does not need peridic writeout yet, and for the latter
+ * Don't bother with new inodes or inodes being freed, first
+ * kind does not need periodic writeout yet, and for the latter
* kind writeout is handled by the freer.
*/
spin_lock(&inode->i_lock);
diff --git a/fs/super.c b/fs/super.c
index c743fb3be4b8..4c5d82f56ec4 100644
--- a/fs/super.c
+++ b/fs/super.c
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ static int grab_super(struct super_block *s) __releases(sb_lock)
/*
* grab_super_passive - acquire a passive reference
- * @s: reference we are trying to grab
+ * @sb: reference we are trying to grab
*
* Tries to acquire a passive reference. This is used in places where we
* cannot take an active reference but we need to ensure that the
diff --git a/include/linux/backing-dev.h b/include/linux/backing-dev.h
index b1038bd686ac..489de625cd25 100644
--- a/include/linux/backing-dev.h
+++ b/include/linux/backing-dev.h
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
#include <linux/percpu_counter.h>
#include <linux/log2.h>
-#include <linux/proportions.h>
+#include <linux/flex_proportions.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ struct backing_dev_info {
unsigned long dirty_ratelimit;
unsigned long balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
- struct prop_local_percpu completions;
+ struct fprop_local_percpu completions;
int dirty_exceeded;
unsigned int min_ratio;
diff --git a/include/linux/flex_proportions.h b/include/linux/flex_proportions.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4ebc49fae391
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/linux/flex_proportions.h
@@ -0,0 +1,101 @@
+/*
+ * Floating proportions with flexible aging period
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2011, SUSE, Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
+ */
+
+#ifndef _LINUX_FLEX_PROPORTIONS_H
+#define _LINUX_FLEX_PROPORTIONS_H
+
+#include <linux/percpu_counter.h>
+#include <linux/spinlock.h>
+#include <linux/seqlock.h>
+
+/*
+ * When maximum proportion of some event type is specified, this is the
+ * precision with which we allow limitting. Note that this creates an upper
+ * bound on the number of events per period like
+ * ULLONG_MAX >> FPROP_FRAC_SHIFT.
+ */
+#define FPROP_FRAC_SHIFT 10
+#define FPROP_FRAC_BASE (1UL << FPROP_FRAC_SHIFT)
+
+/*
+ * ---- Global proportion definitions ----
+ */
+struct fprop_global {
+ /* Number of events in the current period */
+ struct percpu_counter events;
+ /* Current period */
+ unsigned int period;
+ /* Synchronization with period transitions */
+ seqcount_t sequence;
+};
+
+int fprop_global_init(struct fprop_global *p);
+void fprop_global_destroy(struct fprop_global *p);
+bool fprop_new_period(struct fprop_global *p, int periods);
+
+/*
+ * ---- SINGLE ----
+ */
+struct fprop_local_single {
+ /* the local events counter */
+ unsigned long events;
+ /* Period in which we last updated events */
+ unsigned int period;
+ raw_spinlock_t lock; /* Protect period and numerator */
+};
+
+#define INIT_FPROP_LOCAL_SINGLE(name) \
+{ .lock = __RAW_SPIN_LOCK_UNLOCKED(name.lock), \
+}
+
+int fprop_local_init_single(struct fprop_local_single *pl);
+void fprop_local_destroy_single(struct fprop_local_single *pl);
+void __fprop_inc_single(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_single *pl);
+void fprop_fraction_single(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_single *pl, unsigned long *numerator,
+ unsigned long *denominator);
+
+static inline
+void fprop_inc_single(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_single *pl)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ __fprop_inc_single(p, pl);
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+}
+
+/*
+ * ---- PERCPU ----
+ */
+struct fprop_local_percpu {
+ /* the local events counter */
+ struct percpu_counter events;
+ /* Period in which we last updated events */
+ unsigned int period;
+ raw_spinlock_t lock; /* Protect period and numerator */
+};
+
+int fprop_local_init_percpu(struct fprop_local_percpu *pl);
+void fprop_local_destroy_percpu(struct fprop_local_percpu *pl);
+void __fprop_inc_percpu(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_percpu *pl);
+void __fprop_inc_percpu_max(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_percpu *pl,
+ int max_frac);
+void fprop_fraction_percpu(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_percpu *pl, unsigned long *numerator,
+ unsigned long *denominator);
+
+static inline
+void fprop_inc_percpu(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_percpu *pl)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ __fprop_inc_percpu(p, pl);
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+}
+
+#endif
diff --git a/lib/Makefile b/lib/Makefile
index 9cb4104f47d9..42d283edc4d3 100644
--- a/lib/Makefile
+++ b/lib/Makefile
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ lib-y := ctype.o string.o vsprintf.o cmdline.o \
rbtree.o radix-tree.o dump_stack.o timerqueue.o\
idr.o int_sqrt.o extable.o prio_tree.o \
sha1.o md5.o irq_regs.o reciprocal_div.o argv_split.o \
- proportions.o prio_heap.o ratelimit.o show_mem.o \
+ proportions.o flex_proportions.o prio_heap.o ratelimit.o show_mem.o \
is_single_threaded.o plist.o decompress.o
lib-$(CONFIG_MMU) += ioremap.o
diff --git a/lib/flex_proportions.c b/lib/flex_proportions.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c785554f9523
--- /dev/null
+++ b/lib/flex_proportions.c
@@ -0,0 +1,272 @@
+/*
+ * Floating proportions with flexible aging period
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) 2011, SUSE, Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
+ *
+ * The goal of this code is: Given different types of event, measure proportion
+ * of each type of event over time. The proportions are measured with
+ * exponentially decaying history to give smooth transitions. A formula
+ * expressing proportion of event of type 'j' is:
+ *
+ * p_{j} = (\Sum_{i>=0} x_{i,j}/2^{i+1})/(\Sum_{i>=0} x_i/2^{i+1})
+ *
+ * Where x_{i,j} is j's number of events in i-th last time period and x_i is
+ * total number of events in i-th last time period.
+ *
+ * Note that p_{j}'s are normalised, i.e.
+ *
+ * \Sum_{j} p_{j} = 1,
+ *
+ * This formula can be straightforwardly computed by maintaing denominator
+ * (let's call it 'd') and for each event type its numerator (let's call it
+ * 'n_j'). When an event of type 'j' happens, we simply need to do:
+ * n_j++; d++;
+ *
+ * When a new period is declared, we could do:
+ * d /= 2
+ * for each j
+ * n_j /= 2
+ *
+ * To avoid iteration over all event types, we instead shift numerator of event
+ * j lazily when someone asks for a proportion of event j or when event j
+ * occurs. This can bit trivially implemented by remembering last period in
+ * which something happened with proportion of type j.
+ */
+#include <linux/flex_proportions.h>
+
+int fprop_global_init(struct fprop_global *p)
+{
+ int err;
+
+ p->period = 0;
+ /* Use 1 to avoid dealing with periods with 0 events... */
+ err = percpu_counter_init(&p->events, 1);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+ seqcount_init(&p->sequence);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+void fprop_global_destroy(struct fprop_global *p)
+{
+ percpu_counter_destroy(&p->events);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Declare @periods new periods. It is upto the caller to make sure period
+ * transitions cannot happen in parallel.
+ *
+ * The function returns true if the proportions are still defined and false
+ * if aging zeroed out all events. This can be used to detect whether declaring
+ * further periods has any effect.
+ */
+bool fprop_new_period(struct fprop_global *p, int periods)
+{
+ u64 events;
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+ events = percpu_counter_sum(&p->events);
+ /*
+ * Don't do anything if there are no events.
+ */
+ if (events <= 1) {
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+ return false;
+ }
+ write_seqcount_begin(&p->sequence);
+ if (periods < 64)
+ events -= events >> periods;
+ /* Use addition to avoid losing events happening between sum and set */
+ percpu_counter_add(&p->events, -events);
+ p->period += periods;
+ write_seqcount_end(&p->sequence);
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+
+ return true;
+}
+
+/*
+ * ---- SINGLE ----
+ */
+
+int fprop_local_init_single(struct fprop_local_single *pl)
+{
+ pl->events = 0;
+ pl->period = 0;
+ raw_spin_lock_init(&pl->lock);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+void fprop_local_destroy_single(struct fprop_local_single *pl)
+{
+}
+
+static void fprop_reflect_period_single(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_single *pl)
+{
+ unsigned int period = p->period;
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ /* Fast path - period didn't change */
+ if (pl->period == period)
+ return;
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&pl->lock, flags);
+ /* Someone updated pl->period while we were spinning? */
+ if (pl->period >= period) {
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pl->lock, flags);
+ return;
+ }
+ /* Aging zeroed our fraction? */
+ if (period - pl->period < BITS_PER_LONG)
+ pl->events >>= period - pl->period;
+ else
+ pl->events = 0;
+ pl->period = period;
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pl->lock, flags);
+}
+
+/* Event of type pl happened */
+void __fprop_inc_single(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_single *pl)
+{
+ fprop_reflect_period_single(p, pl);
+ pl->events++;
+ percpu_counter_add(&p->events, 1);
+}
+
+/* Return fraction of events of type pl */
+void fprop_fraction_single(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_single *pl,
+ unsigned long *numerator, unsigned long *denominator)
+{
+ unsigned int seq;
+ s64 num, den;
+
+ do {
+ seq = read_seqcount_begin(&p->sequence);
+ fprop_reflect_period_single(p, pl);
+ num = pl->events;
+ den = percpu_counter_read_positive(&p->events);
+ } while (read_seqcount_retry(&p->sequence, seq));
+
+ /*
+ * Make fraction <= 1 and denominator > 0 even in presence of percpu
+ * counter errors
+ */
+ if (den <= num) {
+ if (num)
+ den = num;
+ else
+ den = 1;
+ }
+ *denominator = den;
+ *numerator = num;
+}
+
+/*
+ * ---- PERCPU ----
+ */
+#define PROP_BATCH (8*(1+ilog2(nr_cpu_ids)))
+
+int fprop_local_init_percpu(struct fprop_local_percpu *pl)
+{
+ int err;
+
+ err = percpu_counter_init(&pl->events, 0);
+ if (err)
+ return err;
+ pl->period = 0;
+ raw_spin_lock_init(&pl->lock);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+void fprop_local_destroy_percpu(struct fprop_local_percpu *pl)
+{
+ percpu_counter_destroy(&pl->events);
+}
+
+static void fprop_reflect_period_percpu(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_percpu *pl)
+{
+ unsigned int period = p->period;
+ unsigned long flags;
+
+ /* Fast path - period didn't change */
+ if (pl->period == period)
+ return;
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&pl->lock, flags);
+ /* Someone updated pl->period while we were spinning? */
+ if (pl->period >= period) {
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pl->lock, flags);
+ return;
+ }
+ /* Aging zeroed our fraction? */
+ if (period - pl->period < BITS_PER_LONG) {
+ s64 val = percpu_counter_read(&pl->events);
+
+ if (val < (nr_cpu_ids * PROP_BATCH))
+ val = percpu_counter_sum(&pl->events);
+
+ __percpu_counter_add(&pl->events,
+ -val + (val >> (period-pl->period)), PROP_BATCH);
+ } else
+ percpu_counter_set(&pl->events, 0);
+ pl->period = period;
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&pl->lock, flags);
+}
+
+/* Event of type pl happened */
+void __fprop_inc_percpu(struct fprop_global *p, struct fprop_local_percpu *pl)
+{
+ fprop_reflect_period_percpu(p, pl);
+ __percpu_counter_add(&pl->events, 1, PROP_BATCH);
+ percpu_counter_add(&p->events, 1);
+}
+
+void fprop_fraction_percpu(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_percpu *pl,
+ unsigned long *numerator, unsigned long *denominator)
+{
+ unsigned int seq;
+ s64 num, den;
+
+ do {
+ seq = read_seqcount_begin(&p->sequence);
+ fprop_reflect_period_percpu(p, pl);
+ num = percpu_counter_read_positive(&pl->events);
+ den = percpu_counter_read_positive(&p->events);
+ } while (read_seqcount_retry(&p->sequence, seq));
+
+ /*
+ * Make fraction <= 1 and denominator > 0 even in presence of percpu
+ * counter errors
+ */
+ if (den <= num) {
+ if (num)
+ den = num;
+ else
+ den = 1;
+ }
+ *denominator = den;
+ *numerator = num;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Like __fprop_inc_percpu() except that event is counted only if the given
+ * type has fraction smaller than @max_frac/FPROP_FRAC_BASE
+ */
+void __fprop_inc_percpu_max(struct fprop_global *p,
+ struct fprop_local_percpu *pl, int max_frac)
+{
+ if (unlikely(max_frac < FPROP_FRAC_BASE)) {
+ unsigned long numerator, denominator;
+
+ fprop_fraction_percpu(p, pl, &numerator, &denominator);
+ if (numerator >
+ (((u64)denominator) * max_frac) >> FPROP_FRAC_SHIFT)
+ return;
+ } else
+ fprop_reflect_period_percpu(p, pl);
+ __percpu_counter_add(&pl->events, 1, PROP_BATCH);
+ percpu_counter_add(&p->events, 1);
+}
diff --git a/mm/backing-dev.c b/mm/backing-dev.c
index dd8e2aafb07e..3387aea11209 100644
--- a/mm/backing-dev.c
+++ b/mm/backing-dev.c
@@ -677,7 +677,7 @@ int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
bdi->min_ratio = 0;
bdi->max_ratio = 100;
- bdi->max_prop_frac = PROP_FRAC_BASE;
+ bdi->max_prop_frac = FPROP_FRAC_BASE;
spin_lock_init(&bdi->wb_lock);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->bdi_list);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bdi->work_list);
@@ -700,7 +700,7 @@ int bdi_init(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
bdi->write_bandwidth = INIT_BW;
bdi->avg_write_bandwidth = INIT_BW;
- err = prop_local_init_percpu(&bdi->completions);
+ err = fprop_local_init_percpu(&bdi->completions);
if (err) {
err:
@@ -744,7 +744,7 @@ void bdi_destroy(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
for (i = 0; i < NR_BDI_STAT_ITEMS; i++)
percpu_counter_destroy(&bdi->bdi_stat[i]);
- prop_local_destroy_percpu(&bdi->completions);
+ fprop_local_destroy_percpu(&bdi->completions);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(bdi_destroy);
diff --git a/mm/page-writeback.c b/mm/page-writeback.c
index 93d8d2f7108c..e5363f34e025 100644
--- a/mm/page-writeback.c
+++ b/mm/page-writeback.c
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
#include <linux/syscalls.h>
#include <linux/buffer_head.h> /* __set_page_dirty_buffers */
#include <linux/pagevec.h>
+#include <linux/timer.h>
#include <trace/events/writeback.h>
/*
@@ -135,7 +136,20 @@ unsigned long global_dirty_limit;
* measured in page writeback completions.
*
*/
-static struct prop_descriptor vm_completions;
+static struct fprop_global writeout_completions;
+
+static void writeout_period(unsigned long t);
+/* Timer for aging of writeout_completions */
+static struct timer_list writeout_period_timer =
+ TIMER_DEFERRED_INITIALIZER(writeout_period, 0, 0);
+static unsigned long writeout_period_time = 0;
+
+/*
+ * Length of period for aging writeout fractions of bdis. This is an
+ * arbitrarily chosen number. The longer the period, the slower fractions will
+ * reflect changes in current writeout rate.
+ */
+#define VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN (3*HZ)
/*
* Work out the current dirty-memory clamping and background writeout
@@ -322,34 +336,6 @@ bool zone_dirty_ok(struct zone *zone)
zone_page_state(zone, NR_WRITEBACK) <= limit;
}
-/*
- * couple the period to the dirty_ratio:
- *
- * period/2 ~ roundup_pow_of_two(dirty limit)
- */
-static int calc_period_shift(void)
-{
- unsigned long dirty_total;
-
- if (vm_dirty_bytes)
- dirty_total = vm_dirty_bytes / PAGE_SIZE;
- else
- dirty_total = (vm_dirty_ratio * global_dirtyable_memory()) /
- 100;
- return 2 + ilog2(dirty_total - 1);
-}
-
-/*
- * update the period when the dirty threshold changes.
- */
-static void update_completion_period(void)
-{
- int shift = calc_period_shift();
- prop_change_shift(&vm_completions, shift);
-
- writeback_set_ratelimit();
-}
-
int dirty_background_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp,
loff_t *ppos)
@@ -383,7 +369,7 @@ int dirty_ratio_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
ret = proc_dointvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (ret == 0 && write && vm_dirty_ratio != old_ratio) {
- update_completion_period();
+ writeback_set_ratelimit();
vm_dirty_bytes = 0;
}
return ret;
@@ -398,12 +384,21 @@ int dirty_bytes_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
ret = proc_doulongvec_minmax(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
if (ret == 0 && write && vm_dirty_bytes != old_bytes) {
- update_completion_period();
+ writeback_set_ratelimit();
vm_dirty_ratio = 0;
}
return ret;
}
+static unsigned long wp_next_time(unsigned long cur_time)
+{
+ cur_time += VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN;
+ /* 0 has a special meaning... */
+ if (!cur_time)
+ return 1;
+ return cur_time;
+}
+
/*
* Increment the BDI's writeout completion count and the global writeout
* completion count. Called from test_clear_page_writeback().
@@ -411,8 +406,19 @@ int dirty_bytes_handler(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
static inline void __bdi_writeout_inc(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
{
__inc_bdi_stat(bdi, BDI_WRITTEN);
- __prop_inc_percpu_max(&vm_completions, &bdi->completions,
- bdi->max_prop_frac);
+ __fprop_inc_percpu_max(&writeout_completions, &bdi->completions,
+ bdi->max_prop_frac);
+ /* First event after period switching was turned off? */
+ if (!unlikely(writeout_period_time)) {
+ /*
+ * We can race with other __bdi_writeout_inc calls here but
+ * it does not cause any harm since the resulting time when
+ * timer will fire and what is in writeout_period_time will be
+ * roughly the same.
+ */
+ writeout_period_time = wp_next_time(jiffies);
+ mod_timer(&writeout_period_timer, writeout_period_time);
+ }
}
void bdi_writeout_inc(struct backing_dev_info *bdi)
@@ -431,11 +437,33 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(bdi_writeout_inc);
static void bdi_writeout_fraction(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
long *numerator, long *denominator)
{
- prop_fraction_percpu(&vm_completions, &bdi->completions,
+ fprop_fraction_percpu(&writeout_completions, &bdi->completions,
numerator, denominator);
}
/*
+ * On idle system, we can be called long after we scheduled because we use
+ * deferred timers so count with missed periods.
+ */
+static void writeout_period(unsigned long t)
+{
+ int miss_periods = (jiffies - writeout_period_time) /
+ VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN;
+
+ if (fprop_new_period(&writeout_completions, miss_periods + 1)) {
+ writeout_period_time = wp_next_time(writeout_period_time +
+ miss_periods * VM_COMPLETIONS_PERIOD_LEN);
+ mod_timer(&writeout_period_timer, writeout_period_time);
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * Aging has zeroed all fractions. Stop wasting CPU on period
+ * updates.
+ */
+ writeout_period_time = 0;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
* bdi_min_ratio keeps the sum of the minimum dirty shares of all
* registered backing devices, which, for obvious reasons, can not
* exceed 100%.
@@ -475,7 +503,7 @@ int bdi_set_max_ratio(struct backing_dev_info *bdi, unsigned max_ratio)
ret = -EINVAL;
} else {
bdi->max_ratio = max_ratio;
- bdi->max_prop_frac = (PROP_FRAC_BASE * max_ratio) / 100;
+ bdi->max_prop_frac = (FPROP_FRAC_BASE * max_ratio) / 100;
}
spin_unlock_bh(&bdi_lock);
@@ -918,7 +946,7 @@ static void bdi_update_dirty_ratelimit(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
* bdi->dirty_ratelimit = balanced_dirty_ratelimit;
*
* However to get a more stable dirty_ratelimit, the below elaborated
- * code makes use of task_ratelimit to filter out sigular points and
+ * code makes use of task_ratelimit to filter out singular points and
* limit the step size.
*
* The below code essentially only uses the relative value of
@@ -941,7 +969,7 @@ static void bdi_update_dirty_ratelimit(struct backing_dev_info *bdi,
* feel and care are stable dirty rate and small position error.
*
* |task_ratelimit - dirty_ratelimit| is used to limit the step size
- * and filter out the sigular points of balanced_dirty_ratelimit. Which
+ * and filter out the singular points of balanced_dirty_ratelimit. Which
* keeps jumping around randomly and can even leap far away at times
* due to the small 200ms estimation period of dirty_rate (we want to
* keep that period small to reduce time lags).
@@ -1606,13 +1634,10 @@ static struct notifier_block __cpuinitdata ratelimit_nb = {
*/
void __init page_writeback_init(void)
{
- int shift;
-
writeback_set_ratelimit();
register_cpu_notifier(&ratelimit_nb);
- shift = calc_period_shift();
- prop_descriptor_init(&vm_completions, shift);
+ fprop_global_init(&writeout_completions);
}
/**