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2008-10-20vmscan: don't accumulate scan pressure on unrelated listsJohannes Weiner1-5/+2
During each reclaim scan we accumulate scan pressure on unrelated lists which will result in bogus scans and unwanted reclaims eventually. Scanning lists with few reclaim candidates results in a lot of rotation and therefor also disturbs the list balancing, putting even more pressure on the wrong lists. In a test-case with much streaming IO, and therefor a crowded inactive file page list, swapping started because a) anon pages were reclaimed after swap_cluster_max reclaim invocations -- nr_scan of this list has just accumulated b) active file pages were scanned because *their* nr_scan has also accumulated through the same logic. And this in return created a lot of rotation for file pages and resulted in a decrease of file list priority, again increasing the pressure on anon pages. The result was an evicted working set of anon pages while there were tons of inactive file pages that should have been taken instead. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@saeurebad.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: unevictable LRU scan sysctlLee Schermerhorn1-0/+166
This patch adds a function to scan individual or all zones' unevictable lists and move any pages that have become evictable onto the respective zone's inactive list, where shrink_inactive_list() will deal with them. Adds sysctl to scan all nodes, and per node attributes to individual nodes' zones. Kosaki: If evictable page found in unevictable lru when write /proc/sys/vm/scan_unevictable_pages, print filename and file offset of these pages. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix one CONFIG_MMU=n build error] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: adapt vmscan-unevictable-lru-scan-sysctl.patch to new sysfs API] Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20mlock: mlocked pages are unevictableNick Piggin1-10/+26
Make sure that mlocked pages also live on the unevictable LRU, so kswapd will not scan them over and over again. This is achieved through various strategies: 1) add yet another page flag--PG_mlocked--to indicate that the page is locked for efficient testing in vmscan and, optionally, fault path. This allows early culling of unevictable pages, preventing them from getting to page_referenced()/try_to_unmap(). Also allows separate accounting of mlock'd pages, as Nick's original patch did. Note: Nick's original mlock patch used a PG_mlocked flag. I had removed this in favor of the PG_unevictable flag + an mlock_count [new page struct member]. I restored the PG_mlocked flag to eliminate the new count field. 2) add the mlock/unevictable infrastructure to mm/mlock.c, with internal APIs in mm/internal.h. This is a rework of Nick's original patch to these files, taking into account that mlocked pages are now kept on unevictable LRU list. 3) update vmscan.c:page_evictable() to check PageMlocked() and, if vma passed in, the vm_flags. Note that the vma will only be passed in for new pages in the fault path; and then only if the "cull unevictable pages in fault path" patch is included. 4) add try_to_unlock() to rmap.c to walk a page's rmap and ClearPageMlocked() if no other vmas have it mlocked. Reuses as much of try_to_unmap() as possible. This effectively replaces the use of one of the lru list links as an mlock count. If this mechanism let's pages in mlocked vmas leak through w/o PG_mlocked set [I don't know that it does], we should catch them later in try_to_unmap(). One hopes this will be rare, as it will be relatively expensive. Original mm/internal.h, mm/rmap.c and mm/mlock.c changes: Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> splitlru: introduce __get_user_pages(): New munlock processing need to GUP_FLAGS_IGNORE_VMA_PERMISSIONS. because current get_user_pages() can't grab PROT_NONE pages theresore it cause PROT_NONE pages can't munlock. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix this for pagemap-pass-mm-into-pagewalkers.patch] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: untangle patch interdependencies] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix things after out-of-order merging] [hugh@veritas.com: fix page-flags mess] [lee.schermerhorn@hp.com: fix munlock page table walk - now requires 'mm'] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: build fix] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: fix truncate race and sevaral comments] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: splitlru: introduce __get_user_pages()] Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20SHM_LOCKED pages are unevictableLee Schermerhorn1-0/+89
Shmem segments locked into memory via shmctl(SHM_LOCKED) should not be kept on the normal LRU, since scanning them is a waste of time and might throw off kswapd's balancing algorithms. Place them on the unevictable LRU list instead. Use the AS_UNEVICTABLE flag to mark address_space of SHM_LOCKed shared memory regions as unevictable. Then these pages will be culled off the normal LRU lists during vmscan. Add new wrapper function to clear the mapping's unevictable state when/if shared memory segment is munlocked. Add 'scan_mapping_unevictable_page()' to mm/vmscan.c to scan all pages in the shmem segment's mapping [struct address_space] for evictability now that they're no longer locked. If so, move them to the appropriate zone lru list. Changes depend on [CONFIG_]UNEVICTABLE_LRU. [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: revert shm change] Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Kosaki Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20Ramfs and Ram Disk pages are unevictableLee Schermerhorn1-0/+5
Christoph Lameter pointed out that ram disk pages also clutter the LRU lists. When vmscan finds them dirty and tries to clean them, the ram disk writeback function just redirties the page so that it goes back onto the active list. Round and round she goes... With the ram disk driver [rd.c] replaced by the newer 'brd.c', this is no longer the case, as ram disk pages are no longer maintained on the lru. [This makes them unmigratable for defrag or memory hot remove, but that can be addressed by a separate patch series.] However, the ramfs pages behave like ram disk pages used to, so: Define new address_space flag [shares address_space flags member with mapping's gfp mask] to indicate that the address space contains all unevictable pages. This will provide for efficient testing of ramfs pages in page_evictable(). Also provide wrapper functions to set/test the unevictable state to minimize #ifdefs in ramfs driver and any other users of this facility. Set the unevictable state on address_space structures for new ramfs inodes. Test the unevictable state in page_evictable() to cull unevictable pages. These changes depend on [CONFIG_]UNEVICTABLE_LRU. [riel@redhat.com: undo the brd.c part] Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Debugged-by: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20unevictable lru: add event counting with statisticsLee Schermerhorn1-0/+6
Fix to unevictable-lru-page-statistics.patch Add unevictable lru infrastructure vm events to the statistics patch. Rename the "NORECL_" and "noreclaim_" symbols and text strings to "UNEVICTABLE_" and "unevictable_", respectively. Currently, both the infrastructure and the mlocked pages event are added by a single patch later in the series. This makes it difficult to add or rework the incremental patches. The events actually "belong" with the stats, so pull them up to here. Also, restore the event counting to putback_lru_page(). This was removed from previous patch in series where it was "misplaced". The actual events weren't defined that early. Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20Unevictable LRU InfrastructureLee Schermerhorn1-13/+136
When the system contains lots of mlocked or otherwise unevictable pages, the pageout code (kswapd) can spend lots of time scanning over these pages. Worse still, the presence of lots of unevictable pages can confuse kswapd into thinking that more aggressive pageout modes are required, resulting in all kinds of bad behaviour. Infrastructure to manage pages excluded from reclaim--i.e., hidden from vmscan. Based on a patch by Larry Woodman of Red Hat. Reworked to maintain "unevictable" pages on a separate per-zone LRU list, to "hide" them from vmscan. Kosaki Motohiro added the support for the memory controller unevictable lru list. Pages on the unevictable list have both PG_unevictable and PG_lru set. Thus, PG_unevictable is analogous to and mutually exclusive with PG_active--it specifies which LRU list the page is on. The unevictable infrastructure is enabled by a new mm Kconfig option [CONFIG_]UNEVICTABLE_LRU. A new function 'page_evictable(page, vma)' in vmscan.c tests whether or not a page may be evictable. Subsequent patches will add the various !evictable tests. We'll want to keep these tests light-weight for use in shrink_active_list() and, possibly, the fault path. To avoid races between tasks putting pages [back] onto an LRU list and tasks that might be moving the page from non-evictable to evictable state, the new function 'putback_lru_page()' -- inverse to 'isolate_lru_page()' -- tests the "evictability" of a page after placing it on the LRU, before dropping the reference. If the page has become unevictable, putback_lru_page() will redo the 'putback', thus moving the page to the unevictable list. This way, we avoid "stranding" evictable pages on the unevictable list. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix fallout from out-of-order merge] [riel@redhat.com: fix UNEVICTABLE_LRU and !PROC_PAGE_MONITOR build] [nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp: remove redundant mapping check] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: unevictable-lru-infrastructure: putback_lru_page()/unevictable page handling rework] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: kill unnecessary lock_page() in vmscan.c] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: revert migration change of unevictable lru infrastructure] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: revert to unevictable-lru-infrastructure-kconfig-fix.patch] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: restore patch failure of vmstat-unevictable-and-mlocked-pages-vm-events.patch] Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Debugged-by: Benjamin Kidwell <benjkidwell@yahoo.com> Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20more aggressively use lumpy reclaimRik van Riel1-4/+16
During an AIM7 run on a 16GB system, fork started failing around 32000 threads, despite the system having plenty of free swap and 15GB of pageable memory. This was on x86-64, so 8k stacks. If a higher order allocation fails, we can either: - keep evicting pages off the end of the LRUs and hope that we eventually create a contiguous region; this is somewhat unlikely if the system is under enough stress by new allocations - after trying normal eviction for a bit, use lumpy reclaim This patch switches the system to lumpy reclaim if the VM is having trouble freeing enough pages, using the same threshold for detection as used by pageout congestion wait. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: fix pagecache reclaim referenced bit checkRik van Riel1-32/+13
Moving referenced pages back to the head of the active list creates a huge scalability problem, because by the time a large memory system finally runs out of free memory, every single page in the system will have been referenced. Not only do we not have the time to scan every single page on the active list, but since they have will all have the referenced bit set, that bit conveys no useful information. A more scalable solution is to just move every page that hits the end of the active list to the inactive list. We clear the referenced bit off of mapped pages, which need just one reference to be moved back onto the active list. Unmapped pages will be moved back to the active list after two references (see mark_page_accessed). We preserve the PG_referenced flag on unmapped pages to preserve accesses that were made while the page was on the active list. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: second chance replacement for anonymous pagesRik van Riel1-4/+34
We avoid evicting and scanning anonymous pages for the most part, but under some workloads we can end up with most of memory filled with anonymous pages. At that point, we suddenly need to clear the referenced bits on all of memory, which can take ages on very large memory systems. We can reduce the maximum number of pages that need to be scanned by not taking the referenced state into account when deactivating an anonymous page. After all, every anonymous page starts out referenced, so why check? If an anonymous page gets referenced again before it reaches the end of the inactive list, we move it back to the active list. To keep the maximum amount of necessary work reasonable, we scale the active to inactive ratio with the size of memory, using the formula active:inactive ratio = sqrt(memory in GB * 10). Kswapd CPU use now seems to scale by the amount of pageout bandwidth, instead of by the amount of memory present in the system. [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: fix OOM with memcg] [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: memcg: lru scan fix] Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: split LRU lists into anon & file setsRik van Riel1-200/+216
Split the LRU lists in two, one set for pages that are backed by real file systems ("file") and one for pages that are backed by memory and swap ("anon"). The latter includes tmpfs. The advantage of doing this is that the VM will not have to scan over lots of anonymous pages (which we generally do not want to swap out), just to find the page cache pages that it should evict. This patch has the infrastructure and a basic policy to balance how much we scan the anon lists and how much we scan the file lists. The big policy changes are in separate patches. [lee.schermerhorn@hp.com: collect lru meminfo statistics from correct offset] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: prevent incorrect oom under split_lru] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: fix pagevec_move_tail() doesn't treat unevictable page] [hugh@veritas.com: memcg swapbacked pages active] [hugh@veritas.com: splitlru: BDI_CAP_SWAP_BACKED] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix /proc/vmstat units] [nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp: memcg: fix handling of shmem migration] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: adjust Quicklists field of /proc/meminfo] [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: fix style issue of get_scan_ratio()] Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: free swap space on swap-in/activationRik van Riel1-0/+7
If vm_swap_full() (swap space more than 50% full), the system will free swap space at swapin time. With this patch, the system will also free the swap space in the pageout code, when we decide that the page is not a candidate for swapout (and just wasting swap space). Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: MinChan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: Use an indexed array for LRU variablesChristoph Lameter1-63/+57
Currently we are defining explicit variables for the inactive and active list. An indexed array can be more generic and avoid repeating similar code in several places in the reclaim code. We are saving a few bytes in terms of code size: Before: text data bss dec hex filename 4097753 573120 4092484 8763357 85b7dd vmlinux After: text data bss dec hex filename 4097729 573120 4092484 8763333 85b7c5 vmlinux Having an easy way to add new lru lists may ease future work on the reclaim code. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-10-20vmscan: move isolate_lru_page() to vmscan.cNick Piggin1-0/+45
On large memory systems, the VM can spend way too much time scanning through pages that it cannot (or should not) evict from memory. Not only does it use up CPU time, but it also provokes lock contention and can leave large systems under memory presure in a catatonic state. This patch series improves VM scalability by: 1) putting filesystem backed, swap backed and unevictable pages onto their own LRUs, so the system only scans the pages that it can/should evict from memory 2) switching to two handed clock replacement for the anonymous LRUs, so the number of pages that need to be scanned when the system starts swapping is bound to a reasonable number 3) keeping unevictable pages off the LRU completely, so the VM does not waste CPU time scanning them. ramfs, ramdisk, SHM_LOCKED shared memory segments and mlock()ed VMA pages are keept on the unevictable list. This patch: isolate_lru_page logically belongs to be in vmscan.c than migrate.c. It is tough, because we don't need that function without memory migration so there is a valid argument to have it in migrate.c. However a subsequent patch needs to make use of it in the core mm, so we can happily move it to vmscan.c. Also, make the function a little more generic by not requiring that it adds an isolated page to a given list. Callers can do that. Note that we now have '__isolate_lru_page()', that does something quite different, visible outside of vmscan.c for use with memory controller. Methinks we need to rationalize these names/purposes. --lts [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix mm/memory_hotplug.c build] Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-08-04mm: rename page trylockNick Piggin1-2/+2
Converting page lock to new locking bitops requires a change of page flag operation naming, so we might as well convert it to something nicer (!TestSetPageLocked_Lock => trylock_page, SetPageLocked => set_page_locked). This also facilitates lockdeping of page lock. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Acked-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Acked-by: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-07-30do_try_to_free_page: update comments related to vmscan functionsFernando Luis Vazquez Cao1-1/+1
Signed-off-by: Fernando Luis Vazquez Cao <fernando@oss.ntt.co.jp> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-07-30swapfile/vmscan: update comments related to vmscan functionsFernando Luis Vazquez Cao1-1/+1
Signed-off-by: Fernando Luis Vazquez Cao <fernando@oss.ntt.co.jp> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-07-26mm: spinlock tree_lockNick Piggin1-4/+4
mapping->tree_lock has no read lockers. convert the lock from an rwlock to a spinlock. Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@us.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-07-26mm: speculative page referencesNick Piggin1-20/+54
If we can be sure that elevating the page_count on a pagecache page will pin it, we can speculatively run this operation, and subsequently check to see if we hit the right page rather than relying on holding a lock or otherwise pinning a reference to the page. This can be done if get_page/put_page behaves consistently throughout the whole tree (ie. if we "get" the page after it has been used for something else, we must be able to free it with a put_page). Actually, there is a period where the count behaves differently: when the page is free or if it is a constituent page of a compound page. We need an atomic_inc_not_zero operation to ensure we don't try to grab the page in either case. This patch introduces the core locking protocol to the pagecache (ie. adds page_cache_get_speculative, and tweaks some update-side code to make it work). Thanks to Hugh for pointing out an improvement to the algorithm setting page_count to zero when we have control of all references, in order to hold off speculative getters. [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: fix migration_entry_wait()] [hugh@veritas.com: fix add_to_page_cache] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: repair a comment] Signed-off-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Jeff Garzik <jeff@garzik.org> Cc: Benjamin Herrenschmidt <benh@kernel.crashing.org> Cc: Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@us.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Acked-by: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-07-25per-task-delay-accounting: add memory reclaim delayKeika Kobayashi1-0/+5
Sometimes, application responses become bad under heavy memory load. Applications take a bit time to reclaim memory. The statistics, how long memory reclaim takes, will be useful to measure memory usage. This patch adds accounting memory reclaim to per-task-delay-accounting for accounting the time of do_try_to_free_pages(). <i.e> - When System is under low memory load, memory reclaim may not occur. $ free total used free shared buffers cached Mem: 8197800 1577300 6620500 0 4808 1516724 -/+ buffers/cache: 55768 8142032 Swap: 16386292 0 16386292 $ vmstat 1 procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ----cpu---- r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 0 0 0 5069748 10612 3014060 0 0 0 0 3 26 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 5069748 10612 3014060 0 0 0 0 4 22 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 5069748 10612 3014060 0 0 0 0 3 18 0 0 100 0 Measure the time of tar command. $ ls -s test.dat 1501472 test.dat $ time tar cvf test.tar test.dat real 0m13.388s user 0m0.116s sys 0m5.304s $ ./delayget -d -p <pid> CPU count real total virtual total delay total 428 5528345500 5477116080 62749891 IO count delay total 338 8078977189 SWAP count delay total 0 0 RECLAIM count delay total 0 0 - When system is under heavy memory load memory reclaim may occur. $ vmstat 1 procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ----cpu---- r b swpd free buff cache si so bi bo in cs us sy id wa 0 0 7159032 49724 1812 3012 0 0 0 0 3 24 0 0 100 0 0 0 7159032 49724 1812 3012 0 0 0 0 4 24 0 0 100 0 0 0 7159032 49848 1812 3012 0 0 0 0 3 22 0 0 100 0 In this case, one process uses more 8G memory by execution of malloc() and memset(). $ time tar cvf test.tar test.dat real 1m38.563s <- increased by 85 sec user 0m0.140s sys 0m7.060s $ ./delayget -d -p <pid> CPU count real total virtual total delay total 9021 7140446250 7315277975 923201824 IO count delay total 8965 90466349669 SWAP count delay total 3 21036367 RECLAIM count delay total 740 61011951153 In the later case, the value of RECLAIM is increasing. So, taskstats can show how much memory reclaim influences TAT. Signed-off-by: Keika Kobayashi <kobayashi.kk@ncos.nec.co.jp> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujistu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-06-12mm: fix incorrect variable type in do_try_to_free_pages()kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com1-1/+1
"Smarter retry of costly-order allocations" patch series change behaver of do_try_to_free_pages(). But unfortunately ret variable type was unchanged. Thus an overflow is possible. Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-30mm: remove remaining __FUNCTION__ occurrencesHarvey Harrison1-2/+2
__FUNCTION__ is gcc-specific, use __func__ Signed-off-by: Harvey Harrison <harvey.harrison@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-29page allocator: smarter retry of costly-order allocationsNishanth Aravamudan1-2/+5
Because of page order checks in __alloc_pages(), hugepage (and similarly large order) allocations will not retry unless explicitly marked __GFP_REPEAT. However, the current retry logic is nearly an infinite loop (or until reclaim does no progress whatsoever). For these costly allocations, that seems like overkill and could potentially never terminate. Mel observed that allowing current __GFP_REPEAT semantics for hugepage allocations essentially killed the system. I believe this is because we may continue to reclaim small orders of pages all over, but never have enough to satisfy the hugepage allocation request. This is clearly only a problem for large order allocations, of which hugepages are the most obvious (to me). Modify try_to_free_pages() to indicate how many pages were reclaimed. Use that information in __alloc_pages() to eventually fail a large __GFP_REPEAT allocation when we've reclaimed an order of pages equal to or greater than the allocation's order. This relies on lumpy reclaim functioning as advertised. Due to fragmentation, lumpy reclaim may not be able to free up the order needed in one invocation, so multiple iterations may be requred. In other words, the more fragmented memory is, the more retry attempts __GFP_REPEAT will make (particularly for higher order allocations). This changes the semantics of __GFP_REPEAT subtly, but *only* for allocations > PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER. With this patch, for those size allocations, we will try up to some point (at least 1<<order reclaimed pages), rather than forever (which is the case for allocations <= PAGE_ALLOC_COSTLY_ORDER). This change improves the /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages interface with a follow-on patch that makes pool allocations use __GFP_REPEAT. Rather than administrators repeatedly echo'ing a particular value into the sysctl, and forcing reclaim into action manually, this change allows for the sysctl to attempt a reasonable effort itself. Similarly, dynamic pool growth should be more successful under load, as lumpy reclaim can try to free up pages, rather than failing right away. Choosing to reclaim only up to the order of the requested allocation strikes a balance between not failing hugepage allocations and returning to the caller when it's unlikely to every succeed. Because of lumpy reclaim, if we have freed the order requested, hopefully it has been in big chunks and those chunks will allow our allocation to succeed. If that isn't the case after freeing up the current order, I don't think it is likely to succeed in the future, although it is possible given a particular fragmentation pattern. Signed-off-by: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com> Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@shadowen.org> Tested-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Dave Hansen <haveblue@us.ibm.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-28mm: have zonelist contains structs with both a zone pointer and zone_idxMel Gorman1-12/+10
Filtering zonelists requires very frequent use of zone_idx(). This is costly as it involves a lookup of another structure and a substraction operation. As the zone_idx is often required, it should be quickly accessible. The node idx could also be stored here if it was found that accessing zone->node is significant which may be the case on workloads where nodemasks are heavily used. This patch introduces a struct zoneref to store a zone pointer and a zone index. The zonelist then consists of an array of these struct zonerefs which are looked up as necessary. Helpers are given for accessing the zone index as well as the node index. [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: Suggested struct zoneref instead of embedding information in pointers] [hugh@veritas.com: mm-have-zonelist: fix memcg ooms] [hugh@veritas.com: just return do_try_to_free_pages] [hugh@veritas.com: do_try_to_free_pages gfp_mask redundant] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-28mm: use two zonelist that are filtered by GFP maskMel Gorman1-12/+9
Currently a node has two sets of zonelists, one for each zone type in the system and a second set for GFP_THISNODE allocations. Based on the zones allowed by a gfp mask, one of these zonelists is selected. All of these zonelists consume memory and occupy cache lines. This patch replaces the multiple zonelists per-node with two zonelists. The first contains all populated zones in the system, ordered by distance, for fallback allocations when the target/preferred node has no free pages. The second contains all populated zones in the node suitable for GFP_THISNODE allocations. An iterator macro is introduced called for_each_zone_zonelist() that interates through each zone allowed by the GFP flags in the selected zonelist. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-28mm: use zonelists instead of zones when direct reclaiming pagesMel Gorman1-9/+12
The following patches replace multiple zonelists per node with two zonelists that are filtered based on the GFP flags. The patches as a set fix a bug with regard to the use of MPOL_BIND and ZONE_MOVABLE. With this patchset, the MPOL_BIND will apply to the two highest zones when the highest zone is ZONE_MOVABLE. This should be considered as an alternative fix for the MPOL_BIND+ZONE_MOVABLE in 2.6.23 to the previously discussed hack that filters only custom zonelists. The first patch cleans up an inconsistency where direct reclaim uses zonelist->zones where other places use zonelist. The second patch introduces a helper function node_zonelist() for looking up the appropriate zonelist for a GFP mask which simplifies patches later in the set. The third patch defines/remembers the "preferred zone" for numa statistics, as it is no longer always the first zone in a zonelist. The forth patch replaces multiple zonelists with two zonelists that are filtered. The two zonelists are due to the fact that the memoryless patchset introduces a second set of zonelists for __GFP_THISNODE. The fifth patch introduces helper macros for retrieving the zone and node indices of entries in a zonelist. The final patch introduces filtering of the zonelists based on a nodemask. Two zonelists exist per node, one for normal allocations and one for __GFP_THISNODE. Performance results varied depending on the machine configuration. In real workloads the gain/loss will depend on how much the userspace portion of the benchmark benefits from having more cache available due to reduced referencing of zonelists. These are the range of performance losses/gains when running against 2.6.24-rc4-mm1. The set and these machines are a mix of i386, x86_64 and ppc64 both NUMA and non-NUMA. loss to gain Total CPU time on Kernbench: -0.86% to 1.13% Elapsed time on Kernbench: -0.79% to 0.76% page_test from aim9: -4.37% to 0.79% brk_test from aim9: -0.71% to 4.07% fork_test from aim9: -1.84% to 4.60% exec_test from aim9: -0.71% to 1.08% This patch: The allocator deals with zonelists which indicate the order in which zones should be targeted for an allocation. Similarly, direct reclaim of pages iterates over an array of zones. For consistency, this patch converts direct reclaim to use a zonelist. No functionality is changed by this patch. This simplifies zonelist iterators in the next patch. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-04-19nodemask: use new node_to_cpumask_ptr functionMike Travis1-10/+8
* Use new node_to_cpumask_ptr. This creates a pointer to the cpumask for a given node. This definition is in mm patch: asm-generic-add-node_to_cpumask_ptr-macro.patch * Use new set_cpus_allowed_ptr function. Depends on: [mm-patch]: asm-generic-add-node_to_cpumask_ptr-macro.patch [sched-devel]: sched: add new set_cpus_allowed_ptr function [x86/latest]: x86: add cpus_scnprintf function Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@suse.de> Cc: Greg Banks <gnb@melbourne.sgi.com> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> Signed-off-by: Mike Travis <travis@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
2008-03-24revert "kswapd should only wait on IO if there is IO"Andrew Morton1-22/+5
Revert commit f1a9ee758de7de1e040de849fdef46e6802ea117: Author: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Date: Thu Feb 7 00:14:08 2008 -0800 kswapd should only wait on IO if there is IO The current kswapd (and try_to_free_pages) code has an oddity where the code will wait on IO, even if there is no IO in flight. This problem is notable especially when the system scans through many unfreeable pages, causing unnecessary stalls in the VM. Additionally, tasks without __GFP_FS or __GFP_IO in the direct reclaim path will sleep if a significant number of pages are encountered that should be written out. This gives kswapd a chance to write out those pages, while the direct reclaim task sleeps. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Because of large latencies and interactivity problems reported by Carlos, here: http://lkml.org/lkml/2008/3/22/211 Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: "Carlos R. Mafra" <crmafra2@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-03-04memcg: move_lists on page not page_cgroupHugh Dickins1-2/+3
Each caller of mem_cgroup_move_lists is having to use page_get_page_cgroup: it's more convenient if it acts upon the page itself not the page_cgroup; and in a later patch this becomes important to handle within memcontrol.c. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Hirokazu Takahashi <taka@valinux.co.jp> Cc: YAMAMOTO Takashi <yamamoto@valinux.co.jp> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-03-04Memory controller: rename to Memory Resource ControllerBalbir Singh1-2/+2
Rename Memory Controller to Memory Resource Controller. Reflect the same changes in the CONFIG definition for the Memory Resource Controller. Group together the config options for Resource Counters and Memory Resource Controller. Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07per-zone and reclaim enhancements for memory controller: modifies vmscan.c for isolate globa/cgroup lru activityKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki1-131/+201
When using memory controller, there are 2 levels of memory reclaim. 1. zone memory reclaim because of system/zone memory shortage. 2. memory cgroup memory reclaim because of hitting limit. These two can be distinguished by sc->mem_cgroup parameter. (scan_global_lru() macro) This patch tries to make memory cgroup reclaim routine avoid affecting system/zone memory reclaim. This patch inserts if (scan_global_lru()) and hook to memory_cgroup reclaim support functions. This patch can be a help for isolating system lru activity and group lru activity and shows what additional functions are necessary. * mem_cgroup_calc_mapped_ratio() ... calculate mapped ratio for cgroup. * mem_cgroup_reclaim_imbalance() ... calculate active/inactive balance in cgroup. * mem_cgroup_calc_reclaim_active() ... calculate the number of active pages to be scanned in this priority in mem_cgroup. * mem_cgroup_calc_reclaim_inactive() ... calculate the number of inactive pages to be scanned in this priority in mem_cgroup. * mem_cgroup_all_unreclaimable() .. checks cgroup's page is all unreclaimable or not. * mem_cgroup_get_reclaim_priority() ... * mem_cgroup_note_reclaim_priority() ... record reclaim priority (temporal) * mem_cgroup_remember_reclaim_priority() .... record reclaim priority as zone->prev_priority. This value is used for calc reclaim_mapped. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix unused var warning] Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at> Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Vaidyanathan Srinivasan <svaidy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07per-zone and reclaim enhancements for memory controller: add scan_global_lru macroKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki1-5/+12
This is used to detect which scan_control scans global lru or mem_cgroup lru. And compiled to be static value (1) when memory controller is not configured. This may make the meaning obvious. Acked-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at> Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Vaidyanathan Srinivasan <svaidy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07memory cgroup enhancements: fix zone handling in try_to_free_mem_cgroup_pageKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki1-6/+3
Because NODE_DATA(node)->node_zonelists[] is guaranteed to contain all necessary zones, it is not necessary to use for_each_online_node. And this for_each_online_node() makes reclaim routine start always from node 0. This is not good. This patch makes reclaim start from caller's node and just use usual (default) zonelist order. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warning] Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru> Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Vaidyanathan Srinivasan <svaidy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07kswapd should only wait on IO if there is IORik van Riel1-5/+22
The current kswapd (and try_to_free_pages) code has an oddity where the code will wait on IO, even if there is no IO in flight. This problem is notable especially when the system scans through many unfreeable pages, causing unnecessary stalls in the VM. Additionally, tasks without __GFP_FS or __GFP_IO in the direct reclaim path will sleep if a significant number of pages are encountered that should be written out. This gives kswapd a chance to write out those pages, while the direct reclaim task sleeps. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07Memory controller: make charging gfp mask awareBalbir Singh1-9/+5
Nick Piggin pointed out that swap cache and page cache addition routines could be called from non GFP_KERNEL contexts. This patch makes the charging routine aware of the gfp context. Charging might fail if the cgroup is over it's limit, in which case a suitable error is returned. This patch was tested on a Powerpc box. I am still looking at being able to test the path, through which allocations happen in non GFP_KERNEL contexts. [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: problem with ZONE_MOVABLE] Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru> Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Vaidyanathan Srinivasan <svaidy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07Memory controller: make page_referenced() cgroup awareBalbir Singh1-2/+2
Make page_referenced() cgroup aware. Without this patch, page_referenced() can cause a page to be skipped while reclaiming pages. This patch ensures that other cgroups do not hold pages in a particular cgroup hostage. It is required to ensure that shared pages are freed from a cgroup when they are not actively referenced from the cgroup that brought them in Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru> Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Vaidyanathan Srinivasan <svaidy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2008-02-07Memory controller: add per cgroup LRU and reclaimBalbir Singh1-25/+103
Add the page_cgroup to the per cgroup LRU. The reclaim algorithm has been modified to make the isolate_lru_pages() as a pluggable component. The scan_control data structure now accepts the cgroup on behalf of which reclaims are carried out. try_to_free_pages() has been extended to become cgroup aware. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warning] [Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com: initialize all scan_control's isolate_pages member] [bunk@kernel.org: make do_try_to_free_pages() static] [hugh@veritas.com: memcgroup: fix try_to_free order] [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: this unlock_page_cgroup() is unnecessary] Signed-off-by: Pavel Emelianov <xemul@openvz.org> Signed-off-by: Balbir Singh <balbir@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Paul Menage <menage@google.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Cc: Kirill Korotaev <dev@sw.ru> Cc: Herbert Poetzl <herbert@13thfloor.at> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Vaidyanathan Srinivasan <svaidy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh@veritas.com> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-20spelling fixes: mm/Simon Arlott1-1/+1
Spelling fixes in mm/. Signed-off-by: Simon Arlott <simon@fire.lp0.eu> Signed-off-by: Adrian Bunk <bunk@kernel.org>
2007-10-18sparse pointer use of zero as nullStephen Hemminger1-1/+1
Get rid of sparse related warnings from places that use integer as NULL pointer. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Stephen Hemminger <shemminger@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@suse.de> Cc: Jeff Garzik <jeff@garzik.org> Cc: Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com> Cc: Ian Kent <raven@themaw.net> Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de> Cc: Davide Libenzi <davidel@xmailserver.org> Cc: Stephen Smalley <sds@tycho.nsa.gov> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-17mm: test and set zone reclaim lock before starting reclaimDavid Rientjes1-10/+13
Introduces new zone flag interface for testing and setting flags: int zone_test_and_set_flag(struct zone *zone, zone_flags_t flag) Instead of setting and clearing ZONE_RECLAIM_LOCKED each time shrink_zone() is called, this flag is test and set before starting zone reclaim. Zone reclaim starts in __alloc_pages() when a zone's watermark fails and the system is in zone_reclaim_mode. If it's already in reclaim, there's no need to start again so it is simply considered full for that allocation attempt. There is a change of behavior with regard to concurrent zone shrinking. It is now possible for try_to_free_pages() or kswapd to already be shrinking a particular zone when __alloc_pages() starts zone reclaim. In this case, it is possible for two concurrent threads to invoke shrink_zone() for a single zone. This change forbids a zone to be in zone reclaim twice, which was always the behavior, but allows for concurrent try_to_free_pages() or kswapd shrinking when starting zone reclaim. Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de> Cc: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-17oom: change all_unreclaimable zone member to flagsDavid Rientjes1-12/+13
Convert the int all_unreclaimable member of struct zone to unsigned long flags. This can now be used to specify several different zone flags such as all_unreclaimable and reclaim_in_progress, which can now be removed and converted to a per-zone flag. Flags are set and cleared as follows: zone_set_flag(struct zone *zone, zone_flags_t flag) zone_clear_flag(struct zone *zone, zone_flags_t flag) Defines the first zone flags, ZONE_ALL_UNRECLAIMABLE and ZONE_RECLAIM_LOCKED, which have the same semantics as the old zone->all_unreclaimable and zone->reclaim_in_progress, respectively. Also converts all current users that set or clear either flag to use the new interface. Helper functions are defined to test the flags: int zone_is_all_unreclaimable(const struct zone *zone) int zone_is_reclaim_locked(const struct zone *zone) All flag operators are of the atomic variety because there are currently readers that are implemented that do not take zone->lock. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: add needed include] Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-16make swappiness safer to useAndrea Arcangeli1-0/+41
Swappiness isn't a safe sysctl. Setting it to 0 for example can hang a system. That's a corner case but even setting it to 10 or lower can waste enormous amounts of cpu without making much progress. We've customers who wants to use swappiness but they can't because of the current implementation (if you change it so the system stops swapping it really stops swapping and nothing works sane anymore if you really had to swap something to make progress). This patch from Kurt Garloff makes swappiness safer to use (no more huge cpu usage or hangs with low swappiness values). I think the prev_priority can also be nuked since it wastes 4 bytes per zone (that would be an incremental patch but I wait the nr_scan_[in]active to be nuked first for similar reasons). Clearly somebody at some point noticed how broken that thing was and they had to add min(priority, prev_priority) to give it some reliability, but they didn't go the last mile to nuke prev_priority too. Calculating distress only in function of not-racy priority is correct and sure more than enough without having to add randomness into the equation. Patch is tested on older kernels but it compiles and it's quite simple so... Overall I'm not very satisified by the swappiness tweak, since it doesn't rally do anything with the dirty pagecache that may be inactive. We need another kind of tweak that controls the inactive scan and tunes the can_writepage feature (not yet in mainline despite having submitted it a few times), not only the active one. That new tweak will tell the kernel how hard to scan the inactive list for pure clean pagecache (something the mainline kernel isn't capable of yet). We already have that feature working in all our enterprise kernels with the default reasonable tune, or they can't even run a readonly backup with tar without triggering huge write I/O. I think it should be available also in mainline later. Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Kurt Garloff <garloff@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Fengguang Wu <wfg@mail.ustc.edu.cn> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-16Fix panic of cpu online with memory less nodeYasunori Goto1-1/+3
When a cpu is onlined on memory-less-node box, kernel panics due to touch NULL pointer of pgdat->kswapd. Current kswapd runs only nodes which have memory. So, calling of set_cpus_allowed() is not necessary for memory-less node. This is fix for it. Signed-off-by: Yasunori Goto <y-goto@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-16Memoryless nodes: Add N_CPU node stateChristoph Lameter1-3/+1
We need the check for a node with cpu in zone reclaim. Zone reclaim will not allow remote zone reclaim if a node has a cpu. [Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com: Move setup of N_CPU node state mask] Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Tested-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Acked-by: Bob Picco <bob.picco@hp.com> Cc: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@skynet.ie> Signed-off-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-16Memoryless nodes: No need for kswapdChristoph Lameter1-1/+1
A node without memory does not need a kswapd. So use the memory map instead of the online map when starting kswapd. Signed-off-by: Christoph Lameter <clameter@sgi.com> Acked-by: Nishanth Aravamudan <nacc@us.ibm.com> Tested-by: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Acked-by: Bob Picco <bob.picco@hp.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@skynet.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-10-16mm: prevent kswapd from freeing excessive amounts of lowmemRik van Riel1-1/+7
The current VM can get itself into trouble fairly easily on systems with a small ZONE_HIGHMEM, which is common on i686 computers with 1GB of memory. On one side, page_alloc() will allocate down to zone->pages_low, while on the other side, kswapd() and balance_pgdat() will try to free memory from every zone, until every zone has more free pages than zone->pages_high. Highmem can be filled up to zone->pages_low with page tables, ramfs, vmalloc allocations and other unswappable things quite easily and without many bad side effects, since we still have a huge ZONE_NORMAL to do future allocations from. However, as long as the number of free pages in the highmem zone is below zone->pages_high, kswapd will continue swapping things out from ZONE_NORMAL, too! Sami Farin managed to get his system into a stage where kswapd had freed about 700MB of low memory and was still "going strong". The attached patch will make kswapd stop paging out data from zones when there is more than enough memory free. We do go above zone->pages_high in order to keep pressure between zones equal in normal circumstances, but the patch should prevent the kind of excesses that made Sami's computer totally unusable. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <nickpiggin@yahoo.com.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-08-22synchronous lumpy reclaim: wait for page writeback when directly reclaiming contiguous areasAndy Whitcroft1-8/+60
Lumpy reclaim works by selecting a lead page from the LRU list and then selecting pages for reclaim from the order-aligned area of pages. In the situation were all pages in that region are inactive and not referenced by any process over time, it works well. In the situation where there is even light load on the system, the pages may not free quickly. Out of a area of 1024 pages, maybe only 950 of them are freed when the allocation attempt occurs because lumpy reclaim returned early. This patch alters the behaviour of direct reclaim for large contiguous blocks. The first attempt to call shrink_page_list() is asynchronous but if it fails, the pages are submitted a second time and the calling process waits for the IO to complete. This may stall allocators waiting for contiguous memory but that should be expected behaviour for high-order users. It is preferable behaviour to potentially queueing unnecessary areas for IO. Note that kswapd will not stall in this fashion. [apw@shadowen.org: update to version 2] [apw@shadowen.org: update to version 3] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andy Whitcroft <apw@shadowen.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-08-22synchronous lumpy reclaim: ensure we count pages transitioning inactive via clear_active_flagsAndy Whitcroft1-0/+1
As pointed out by Mel when reclaim is applied at higher orders a significant amount of IO may be started. As this takes finite time to drain reclaim will consider more areas than ultimatly needed to satisfy the request. This leads to more reclaim than strictly required and reduced success rates. I was able to confirm Mel's test results on systems locally. These show that even under light load the success rates drop off far more than expected. Testing with a modified version of his patch (which follows) I was able to allocate almost all of ZONE_MOVABLE with a near idle system. I ran 5 test passes sequentially following system boot (the system has 29 hugepages in ZONE_MOVABLE): 2.6.23-rc1 11 8 6 7 7 sync_lumpy 28 28 29 29 26 These show that although hugely better than the near 0% success normally expected we can only allocate about a 1/4 of the zone. Using synchronous reclaim for these allocations we get close to 100% as expected. I have also run our standard high order tests and these show no regressions in allocation success rates at rest, and some significant improvements under load. This patch: We are transitioning pages from active to inactive in clear_active_flags, those need counting as PGDEACTIVATE vm events. Signed-off-by: Andy Whitcroft <apw@shadowen.org> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-07-17Freezer: make kernel threads nonfreezable by defaultRafael J. Wysocki1-0/+1
Currently, the freezer treats all tasks as freezable, except for the kernel threads that explicitly set the PF_NOFREEZE flag for themselves. This approach is problematic, since it requires every kernel thread to either set PF_NOFREEZE explicitly, or call try_to_freeze(), even if it doesn't care for the freezing of tasks at all. It seems better to only require the kernel threads that want to or need to be frozen to use some freezer-related code and to remove any freezer-related code from the other (nonfreezable) kernel threads, which is done in this patch. The patch causes all kernel threads to be nonfreezable by default (ie. to have PF_NOFREEZE set by default) and introduces the set_freezable() function that should be called by the freezable kernel threads in order to unset PF_NOFREEZE. It also makes all of the currently freezable kernel threads call set_freezable(), so it shouldn't cause any (intentional) change of behaviour to appear. Additionally, it updates documentation to describe the freezing of tasks more accurately. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: build fixes] Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl> Acked-by: Nigel Cunningham <nigel@nigel.suspend2.net> Cc: Pavel Machek <pavel@ucw.cz> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@tv-sign.ru> Cc: Gautham R Shenoy <ego@in.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2007-07-17mm: clean up and kernelify shrinker registrationRusty Russell1-31/+11
I can never remember what the function to register to receive VM pressure is called. I have to trace down from __alloc_pages() to find it. It's called "set_shrinker()", and it needs Your Help. 1) Don't hide struct shrinker. It contains no magic. 2) Don't allocate "struct shrinker". It's not helpful. 3) Call them "register_shrinker" and "unregister_shrinker". 4) Call the function "shrink" not "shrinker". 5) Reduce the 17 lines of waffly comments to 13, but document it properly. Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au> Cc: David Chinner <dgc@sgi.com> Cc: Trond Myklebust <trond.myklebust@fys.uio.no> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>