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2015-02-17scripts/gdb: port to python3 / gdb7.7Pantelis Koukousoulas6-9/+18
I tried to use these scripts in an ubuntu 14.04 host (gdb 7.7 compiled against python 3.3) but there were several errors. I believe this patch fixes these issues so that the commands now work (I tested lx-symbols, lx-dmesg, lx-lsmod). Main issues that needed to be resolved: * In python 2 iterators have a "next()" method. In python 3 it is __next__() instead (so let's just add both). * In older python versions there was an implicit conversion in object.__format__() (used when an object is in string.format()) where it was converting the object to str first and then calling str's __format__(). This has now been removed so we must explicitly convert to str the objects for which we need to keep this behavior. * In dmesg.py: in python 3 log_buf is now a "memoryview" object which needs to be converted to a string in order to use string methods like "splitlines()". Luckily memoryview exists in python 2.7.6 as well, so we can convert log_buf to memoryview and use the same code in both python 2 and python 3. This version of the patch has now been tested with gdb 7.7 and both python 3.4 and python 2.7.6 (I think asking for at least python 2.7.6 is a reasonable requirement instead of complicating the code with version checks etc). Signed-off-by: Pantelis Koukousoulas <pktoss@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add lx-lsmod commandJan Kiszka1-1/+45
This adds a lsmod-like command to list all currently loaded modules of the target. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add class to iterate over CPU masksJan Kiszka1-0/+54
Will be used first to count module references. It is optimized to read the mask only once per stop. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add lx_current convenience functionJan Kiszka1-0/+17
This is a shorthand for *$lx_per_cpu("current_task"), i.e. a convenience function to retrieve the currently running task of the active context. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add internal helper and convenience function for per-cpu lookupJan Kiszka2-0/+69
This function allows to obtain a per-cpu variable, either of the current or an explicitly specified CPU. Note: sparc64 version is untested. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: "David S. Miller" <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add get_gdbserver_type helperJan Kiszka1-0/+35
This helper probes the type of the gdb server. Supported are QEMU and KGDB so far. Knowledge about the gdb server is required e.g. to retrieve the current CPU or current task. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add internal helper and convenience function to retrieve thread_infoJan Kiszka1-0/+35
Add the internal helper get_thread_info that calculates the thread_info from a given task variable. Also export this service as a convenience function. Note: ia64 version is untested. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com> Cc: Fenghua Yu <fenghua.yu@intel.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add is_target_arch helperJan Kiszka1-0/+13
This helper caches to result of "show architecture" and matches the provided arch (sub-)string against that output. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add helper and convenience function to look up tasksJan Kiszka2-0/+28
Add the helper task_by_pid that can look up a task by its PID. Also export it as a convenience function. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add task iteration classJan Kiszka1-0/+46
This class allows to iterate over all tasks of the target. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add lx-dmesg commandJan Kiszka2-0/+65
This pokes into the log buffer of the debugged kernel, dumping it to the gdb console. Helping in case the target should or can no longer execute dmesg itself. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Kay Sievers <kay@vrfy.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add read_u16/32/64 helpersJan Kiszka1-0/+21
Add helpers for reading integers from target memory buffers. Required when caching the memory access is more efficient than reading individual values via gdb. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add get_target_endianness helperJan Kiszka1-0/+18
Parse the target endianness from the output of "show endian" and cache the result to return it via the new helper get_target_endiannes. We will need it for reading integers from buffers that contain target memory. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add internal helper and convenience function to look up a moduleJan Kiszka2-0/+29
Add the internal helper get_module_by_name to obtain the module structure corresponding to the given name. Also export this service as a convenience function. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add automatic symbol reloading on module insertionJan Kiszka1-0/+39
This installs a silent breakpoint on the do_init_module function. The breakpoint handler will try to load symbols from the module files found during lx-symbols execution. This way, breakpoints can be set to module initialization functions, and there is no need to explicitly call lx-symbols after (re-)loading a module. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add lx-symbols commandJan Kiszka2-0/+128
This is probably the most useful helper when debugging kernel modules: lx-symbols first reloads vmlinux. Then it searches recursively for *.ko files in the specified paths and the current directory. Finally it walks the kernel's module list, issuing the necessary add-symbol-file command for each loaded module so that gdb knows which module symbol corresponds to which address. It also looks up variable sections (bss, data, rodata) and appends their address to the add-symbole-file command line. This allows to access global module variables just like any other variable. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add module iteration classJan Kiszka1-0/+39
Will soon be used for loading symbols, printing global variables or listing modules. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add container_of helper and convenience functionJan Kiszka2-0/+37
Provide an internal helper with container_of semantics. As type lookups are very slow in gdb-python and we need a type "long" for this, cache the reference to this type object. Then export the helper also as a convenience function form use at the gdb command line. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add cache for type objectsJan Kiszka1-0/+34
Type lookups are very slow in gdb-python which is often noticeable when iterating over a number of objects. Introduce the helper class CachedType that keeps a reference to a gdb.Type object but also refreshes it after an object file has been loaded. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-17scripts/gdb: add infrastructureJan Kiszka4-0/+36
This provides the basic infrastructure to load kernel-specific python helper scripts when debugging the kernel in gdb. The loading mechanism is based on gdb loading for <objfile>-gdb.py when opening <objfile>. Therefore, this places a corresponding link to the main helper script into the output directory that contains vmlinux. The main scripts will pull in submodules containing Linux specific gdb commands and functions. To avoid polluting the source directory with compiled python modules, we link to them from the object directory. Due to gdb.parse_and_eval and string redirection for gdb.execute, we depend on gdb >= 7.2. This feature is enabled via CONFIG_GDB_SCRIPTS. Signed-off-by: Jan Kiszka <jan.kiszka@siemens.com> Acked-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> [kbuild stuff] Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: Jason Wessel <jason.wessel@windriver.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ben Widawsky <ben@bwidawsk.net> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-16vfs,ext2: remove CONFIG_EXT2_FS_XIP and rename CONFIG_FS_XIP to CONFIG_FS_DAXMatthew Wilcox1-1/+0
The fewer Kconfig options we have the better. Use the generic CONFIG_FS_DAX to enable XIP support in ext2 as well as in the core. Signed-off-by: Matthew Wilcox <matthew.r.wilcox@intel.com> Cc: Andreas Dilger <andreas.dilger@intel.com> Cc: Boaz Harrosh <boaz@plexistor.com> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> Cc: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mathieu Desnoyers <mathieu.desnoyers@efficios.com> Cc: Randy Dunlap <rdunlap@infradead.org> Cc: Ross Zwisler <ross.zwisler@linux.intel.com> Cc: Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13kasan: enable instrumentation of global variablesAndrey Ryabinin1-1/+1
This feature let us to detect accesses out of bounds of global variables. This will work as for globals in kernel image, so for globals in modules. Currently this won't work for symbols in user-specified sections (e.g. __init, __read_mostly, ...) The idea of this is simple. Compiler increases each global variable by redzone size and add constructors invoking __asan_register_globals() function. Information about global variable (address, size, size with redzone ...) passed to __asan_register_globals() so we could poison variable's redzone. This patch also forces module_alloc() to return 8*PAGE_SIZE aligned address making shadow memory handling ( kasan_module_alloc()/kasan_module_free() ) more simple. Such alignment guarantees that each shadow page backing modules address space correspond to only one module_alloc() allocation. Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com> Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com> Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com> Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com> Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com> Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13kernel: add support for .init_array.* constructorsAndrey Ryabinin1-0/+3
KASan uses constructors for initializing redzones for global variables. Globals instrumentation in GCC 4.9.2 produces constructors with priority (.init_array.00099) Currently kernel ignores such constructors. Only constructors with default priority supported (.init_array) This patch adds support for constructors with priorities. For kernel image we put pointers to constructors between __ctors_start/__ctors_end and do_ctors() will call them on start up. For modules we merge .init_array.* sections into resulting .init_array. Module code properly handles constructors in .init_array section. Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com> Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com> Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com> Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com> Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com> Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13kasan: enable stack instrumentationAndrey Ryabinin1-0/+1
Stack instrumentation allows to detect out of bounds memory accesses for variables allocated on stack. Compiler adds redzones around every variable on stack and poisons redzones in function's prologue. Such approach significantly increases stack usage, so all in-kernel stacks size were doubled. Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com> Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com> Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com> Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com> Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com> Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13kasan: add kernel address sanitizer infrastructureAndrey Ryabinin2-0/+34
Kernel Address sanitizer (KASan) is a dynamic memory error detector. It provides fast and comprehensive solution for finding use-after-free and out-of-bounds bugs. KASAN uses compile-time instrumentation for checking every memory access, therefore GCC > v4.9.2 required. v4.9.2 almost works, but has issues with putting symbol aliases into the wrong section, which breaks kasan instrumentation of globals. This patch only adds infrastructure for kernel address sanitizer. It's not available for use yet. The idea and some code was borrowed from [1]. Basic idea: The main idea of KASAN is to use shadow memory to record whether each byte of memory is safe to access or not, and use compiler's instrumentation to check the shadow memory on each memory access. Address sanitizer uses 1/8 of the memory addressable in kernel for shadow memory and uses direct mapping with a scale and offset to translate a memory address to its corresponding shadow address. Here is function to translate address to corresponding shadow address: unsigned long kasan_mem_to_shadow(unsigned long addr) { return (addr >> KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT) + KASAN_SHADOW_OFFSET; } where KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT = 3. So for every 8 bytes there is one corresponding byte of shadow memory. The following encoding used for each shadow byte: 0 means that all 8 bytes of the corresponding memory region are valid for access; k (1 <= k <= 7) means that the first k bytes are valid for access, and other (8 - k) bytes are not; Any negative value indicates that the entire 8-bytes are inaccessible. Different negative values used to distinguish between different kinds of inaccessible memory (redzones, freed memory) (see mm/kasan/kasan.h). To be able to detect accesses to bad memory we need a special compiler. Such compiler inserts a specific function calls (__asan_load*(addr), __asan_store*(addr)) before each memory access of size 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16. These functions check whether memory region is valid to access or not by checking corresponding shadow memory. If access is not valid an error printed. Historical background of the address sanitizer from Dmitry Vyukov: "We've developed the set of tools, AddressSanitizer (Asan), ThreadSanitizer and MemorySanitizer, for user space. We actively use them for testing inside of Google (continuous testing, fuzzing, running prod services). To date the tools have found more than 10'000 scary bugs in Chromium, Google internal codebase and various open-source projects (Firefox, OpenSSL, gcc, clang, ffmpeg, MySQL and lots of others): [2] [3] [4]. The tools are part of both gcc and clang compilers. We have not yet done massive testing under the Kernel AddressSanitizer (it's kind of chicken and egg problem, you need it to be upstream to start applying it extensively). To date it has found about 50 bugs. Bugs that we've found in upstream kernel are listed in [5]. We've also found ~20 bugs in out internal version of the kernel. Also people from Samsung and Oracle have found some. [...] As others noted, the main feature of AddressSanitizer is its performance due to inline compiler instrumentation and simple linear shadow memory. User-space Asan has ~2x slowdown on computational programs and ~2x memory consumption increase. Taking into account that kernel usually consumes only small fraction of CPU and memory when running real user-space programs, I would expect that kernel Asan will have ~10-30% slowdown and similar memory consumption increase (when we finish all tuning). I agree that Asan can well replace kmemcheck. We have plans to start working on Kernel MemorySanitizer that finds uses of unitialized memory. Asan+Msan will provide feature-parity with kmemcheck. As others noted, Asan will unlikely replace debug slab and pagealloc that can be enabled at runtime. Asan uses compiler instrumentation, so even if it is disabled, it still incurs visible overheads. Asan technology is easily portable to other architectures. Compiler instrumentation is fully portable. Runtime has some arch-dependent parts like shadow mapping and atomic operation interception. They are relatively easy to port." Comparison with other debugging features: ======================================== KMEMCHECK: - KASan can do almost everything that kmemcheck can. KASan uses compile-time instrumentation, which makes it significantly faster than kmemcheck. The only advantage of kmemcheck over KASan is detection of uninitialized memory reads. Some brief performance testing showed that kasan could be x500-x600 times faster than kmemcheck: $ netperf -l 30 MIGRATED TCP STREAM TEST from 0.0.0.0 (0.0.0.0) port 0 AF_INET to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 0 AF_INET Recv Send Send Socket Socket Message Elapsed Size Size Size Time Throughput bytes bytes bytes secs. 10^6bits/sec no debug: 87380 16384 16384 30.00 41624.72 kasan inline: 87380 16384 16384 30.00 12870.54 kasan outline: 87380 16384 16384 30.00 10586.39 kmemcheck: 87380 16384 16384 30.03 20.23 - Also kmemcheck couldn't work on several CPUs. It always sets number of CPUs to 1. KASan doesn't have such limitation. DEBUG_PAGEALLOC: - KASan is slower than DEBUG_PAGEALLOC, but KASan works on sub-page granularity level, so it able to find more bugs. SLUB_DEBUG (poisoning, redzones): - SLUB_DEBUG has lower overhead than KASan. - SLUB_DEBUG in most cases are not able to detect bad reads, KASan able to detect both reads and writes. - In some cases (e.g. redzone overwritten) SLUB_DEBUG detect bugs only on allocation/freeing of object. KASan catch bugs right before it will happen, so we always know exact place of first bad read/write. [1] https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/AddressSanitizerForKernel [2] https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/FoundBugs [3] https://code.google.com/p/thread-sanitizer/wiki/FoundBugs [4] https://code.google.com/p/memory-sanitizer/wiki/FoundBugs [5] https://code.google.com/p/address-sanitizer/wiki/AddressSanitizerForKernel#Trophies Based on work by Andrey Konovalov. Signed-off-by: Andrey Ryabinin <a.ryabinin@samsung.com> Acked-by: Michal Marek <mmarek@suse.cz> Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <adech.fo@gmail.com> Cc: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> Cc: Konstantin Serebryany <kcc@google.com> Cc: Dmitry Chernenkov <dmitryc@google.com> Cc: Yuri Gribov <tetra2005@gmail.com> Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <koct9i@gmail.com> Cc: Sasha Levin <sasha.levin@oracle.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Joonsoo Kim <iamjoonsoo.kim@lge.com> Cc: Dave Hansen <dave.hansen@intel.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@zytor.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Pekka Enberg <penberg@kernel.org> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add of_device_id to structs that should be constJoe Perches1-3/+5
Uses of struct of_device_id are most commonly const. Suggest using it as such. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Acked-by: Rob Herring <robh@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: try to avoid poor patch subject linesJoe Perches1-0/+7
Naming the tool that found an issue in the subject line isn't very useful. Emit a warning when a common tool (currently checkpatch, sparse or smatch) is in the subject line. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Suggested-by: Al Viro <viro@ZenIV.linux.org.uk> Acked-by: Dan Carpenter <dan.carpenter@oracle.com> Acked-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: make sure a commit reference description uses parenthesesJoe Perches1-1/+5
The preferred style for a commit reference in a commit log is: commit <foo> ("<title line>") A recent commit removed this check for parentheses. Add it back. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add --strict test for spaces around arithmeticJoe Perches1-1/+16
Some prefer code to have spaces around arithmetic so instead of: a = b*c+d; suggest a = b * c + d; Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: neaten printk_ratelimited message positionJoe Perches1-1/+1
Just neatening... Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: improve "no space necessary after cast" testJoe Perches1-1/+1
Code like: if (a < sizeof(<type>) && and { .len = sizeof(<type>) }, incorrectly emits that warning, so add more exceptions to avoid the warning. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: improve seq_print->seq_puts suggestionHeba Aamer1-1/+2
Improve the format specifier test by removing any %% before looking for any remaining % format specifier. Signed-off-by: Heba Aamer <heba93aamer@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add ability to --fix unnecessary blank lines around bracesJoe Perches1-4/+10
There's a --strict test for these blank lines. Add the ability to automatically remove them with --fix. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add types for other OS typedefsJoe Perches1-0/+8
bsd and sysv use different typedefs for unsigned types. These are in types.h but not in checkpatch, so add them to checkpatch's ability to know types. This can avoid false positives for code like: void foo(void) { int x; uint y; [...]; } where checkpatch incorrectly emits a warning for "missing a blank line after declarations". Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add ability to coalesce commit descriptions on multiple linesJoe Perches1-0/+7
If a git commit description is split on consecutive lines, coalesce it before testing. This allows: commit <foo> ("some long description") Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Reported-by: Paul Bolle <pebolle@tiscali.nl> Tested-by: Paul Bolle <pebolle@tiscali.nl> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add likely/unlikely comparison misuse testJoe Perches1-0/+7
Add a test for probably likely/unlikely misuses where the comparison is likely misplaced if (likely(foo) > 0) vs if (likely(foo > 0)) Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Cc: Christoph Jaeger <cj@linux.com> Cc: Julia Lawall <julia.lawall@lip6.fr> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: update git commit messageJoe Perches1-13/+32
The git commit message can be confusing, Try to clarify the message a bit to reduce the confusion when emitted. Show the correct form using Please use git commit description style 'commit <12+ chars of sha1> ("<title line>")' and if the git commit sha1 is unique, show the right sha1 to use with the actual title Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Original-patch-by: Prarit Bhargava <prarit@redhat.com> Tested-by: Chris Rorvick <chris@rorvick.com> Acked-by: Prarit Bhargava <prarit@redhat.com> Cc: Daniel Baluta <daniel.baluta@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: Allow comments in macros tested for single statementsJoe Perches1-0/+1
Convert all the comments to spaces before testing for single statement macros. Reported-by: Valdis Kletnieks <Valdis.Kletnieks@vt.edu> Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: add check for keyword 'boolean' in Kconfig definitionsChristoph Jaeger1-0/+7
Discourage the use of keyword 'boolean' for type definition attributes of config options as support for it will be dropped later on. See http://lkml.kernel.org/r/cover.1418003065.git.cj@linux.com Signed-off-by: Christoph Jaeger <cj@linux.com> Suggested-by: Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com> Cc: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Acked-by: Paul Bolle <pebolle@tiscali.nl> Tested-by: Paul Bolle <pebolle@tiscali.nl> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: fix UNNECESSARY_KERN_LEVEL false positivePaolo Bonzini1-1/+1
KERN_<LEVEL> is never redundant with printk_ratelimited or printk_once. (Except perhaps in the sense that you could use e.g. pr_err_ratelimited or pr_err_once, but that would apply to printk as well). Signed-off-by: Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com> Cc: Andy Whitcroft <apw@canonical.com> Acked-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: ignore __pure $AttributeJoe Perches1-0/+1
Just like "__cold", ignore the __pure gcc attribute macro so pointer warnings aren't generated for uses like "int * __pure fn(...)" Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: improve octal permissions testsJoe Perches1-1/+5
Add world writable permissions tests for the various functions like debugfs etc... Add $String type for $FuncArg so that string constants are matched. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13checkpatch: emit an error when using predefined timestamp macrosJoe Perches1-0/+6
Since commit fe7c36c7bde1 ("Makefile: Build with -Werror=date-time if the compiler supports it"), use of __DATE__, __TIME__, and __TIMESTAMP__ has not been allowed. As this test is gcc version specific (> 4.9), it hasn't prevented a few new uses from creeping into the kernel sources. Make checkpatch complain about them. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <joe@perches.com> Original-patch-by: Rasmus Villemoes <linux@rasmusvillemoes.dk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-13Merge tag 'modules-next-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rusty/linuxLinus Torvalds1-10/+10
Pull module update from Rusty Russell: "Trivial cleanups, mainly" * tag 'modules-next-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/rusty/linux: module: Replace over-engineered nested sleep module: Annotate nested sleep in resolve_symbol() module: Remove double spaces in module verification taint message kernel/module.c: Free lock-classes if parse_args failed module: set ksymtab/kcrctab* section addresses to 0x0
2015-02-11Merge branch 'next' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jmorris/linux-securityLinus Torvalds1-11/+19
Pull security layer updates from James Morris: "Highlights: - Smack adds secmark support for Netfilter - /proc/keys is now mandatory if CONFIG_KEYS=y - TPM gets its own device class - Added TPM 2.0 support - Smack file hook rework (all Smack users should review this!)" * 'next' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/jmorris/linux-security: (64 commits) cipso: don't use IPCB() to locate the CIPSO IP option SELinux: fix error code in policydb_init() selinux: add security in-core xattr support for pstore and debugfs selinux: quiet the filesystem labeling behavior message selinux: Remove unused function avc_sidcmp() ima: /proc/keys is now mandatory Smack: Repair netfilter dependency X.509: silence asn1 compiler debug output X.509: shut up about included cert for silent build KEYS: Make /proc/keys unconditional if CONFIG_KEYS=y MAINTAINERS: email update tpm/tpm_tis: Add missing ifdef CONFIG_ACPI for pnp_acpi_device smack: fix possible use after frees in task_security() callers smack: Add missing logging in bidirectional UDS connect check Smack: secmark support for netfilter Smack: Rework file hooks tpm: fix format string error in tpm-chip.c char/tpm/tpm_crb: fix build error smack: Fix a bidirectional UDS connect check typo smack: introduce a special case for tmpfs in smack_d_instantiate() ...
2015-02-11Merge branch 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/s390/linuxLinus Torvalds2-4/+10
Pull s390 updates from Martin Schwidefsky: - The remaining patches for the z13 machine support: kernel build option for z13, the cache synonym avoidance, SMT support, compare-and-delay for spinloops and the CES5S crypto adapater. - The ftrace support for function tracing with the gcc hotpatch option. This touches common code Makefiles, Steven is ok with the changes. - The hypfs file system gets an extension to access diagnose 0x0c data in user space for performance analysis for Linux running under z/VM. - The iucv hvc console gets wildcard spport for the user id filtering. - The cacheinfo code is converted to use the generic infrastructure. - Cleanup and bug fixes. * 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/s390/linux: (42 commits) s390/process: free vx save area when releasing tasks s390/hypfs: Eliminate hypfs interval s390/hypfs: Add diagnose 0c support s390/cacheinfo: don't use smp_processor_id() in preemptible context s390/zcrypt: fixed domain scanning problem (again) s390/smp: increase maximum value of NR_CPUS to 512 s390/jump label: use different nop instruction s390/jump label: add sanity checks s390/mm: correct missing space when reporting user process faults s390/dasd: cleanup profiling s390/dasd: add locking for global_profile access s390/ftrace: hotpatch support for function tracing ftrace: let notrace function attribute disable hotpatching if necessary ftrace: allow architectures to specify ftrace compile options s390: reintroduce diag 44 calls for cpu_relax() s390/zcrypt: Add support for new crypto express (CEX5S) adapter. s390/zcrypt: Number of supported ap domains is not retrievable. s390/spinlock: add compare-and-delay to lock wait loops s390/tape: remove redundant if statement s390/hvc_iucv: add simple wildcard matches to the iucv allow filter ...
2015-02-06module: set ksymtab/kcrctab* section addresses to 0x0Rabin Vincent1-10/+10
These __ksymtab*/__kcrctab* sections currently have non-zero addresses. Non-zero section addresses in a relocatable ELF confuse GDB and it ends up not relocating all symbols when add-symbol-file is used on modules which have exports. The kernel's module loader does not care about these addresses, so let's just set them to zero. Before: $ readelf -S lib/notifier-error-inject.ko | grep 'Name\| __ksymtab_gpl' [Nr] Name Type Addr Off Size ES Flg Lk Inf Al [ 8] __ksymtab_gpl PROGBITS 0000000c 0001b4 000010 00 A 0 0 4 (gdb) add-symbol-file lib/notifier-error-inject.ko 0x500000 -s .bss 0x700000 add symbol table from file "lib/notifier-error-inject.ko" at .text_addr = 0x500000 .bss_addr = 0x700000 (gdb) p &notifier_err_inject_dir $3 = (struct dentry **) 0x0 After: $ readelf -S lib/notifier-error-inject.ko | grep 'Name\| __ksymtab_gpl' [Nr] Name Type Addr Off Size ES Flg Lk Inf Al [ 8] __ksymtab_gpl PROGBITS 00000000 0001b4 000010 00 A 0 0 4 (gdb) add-symbol-file lib/notifier-error-inject.ko 0x500000 -s .bss 0x700000 add symbol table from file "lib/notifier-error-inject.ko" at .text_addr = 0x500000 .bss_addr = 0x700000 (gdb) p &notifier_err_inject_dir $3 = (struct dentry **) 0x700000 Signed-off-by: Rabin Vincent <rabin.vincent@axis.com> Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <rusty@rustcorp.com.au>
2015-01-29s390/ftrace: hotpatch support for function tracingHeiko Carstens1-2/+7
Make use of gcc's hotpatch support to generate better code for ftrace function tracing. The generated code now contains only a six byte nop in each function prologue instead of a 24 byte code block which will be runtime patched to support function tracing. With the new code generation the runtime overhead for supporting function tracing is close to zero, while the original code did show a significant performance impact. Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
2015-01-29ftrace: allow architectures to specify ftrace compile optionsHeiko Carstens1-2/+3
If the kernel is compiled with function tracer support the -pg compile option is passed to gcc to generate extra code into the prologue of each function. This patch replaces the "open-coded" -pg compile flag with a CC_FLAGS_FTRACE makefile variable which architectures can override if a different option should be used for code generation. Acked-by: Steven Rostedt <rostedt@goodmis.org> Signed-off-by: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
2015-01-23X.509: silence asn1 compiler debug outputArnd Bergmann1-11/+19
The asn1_compiler process is particularly chatty and produces about the only stdout output for an allmodconfig kernel. In order to follow the general concept of 'no news is good news' for building kernels, this hides all the existing output unless the KBUILD_VERBOSE environment variable is set. Signed-off-by: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de> Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>