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2021-08-27fscache, cachefiles: Remove the histogram stuffDavid Howells1-25/+0
Remove the histogram stuff as it's mostly going to be outdated. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com> cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/162431195953.2908479.16770977195634296638.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/
2021-04-23fscache, cachefiles: Add alternate API to use kiocb for read/write to cacheDavid Howells1-0/+9
Add an alternate API by which the cache can be accessed through a kiocb, doing async DIO, rather than using the current API that tells the cache where all the pages are. The new API is intended to be used in conjunction with the netfs helper library. A filesystem must pick one or the other and not mix them. Filesystems wanting to use the new API must #define FSCACHE_USE_NEW_IO_API before #including the header. This prevents them from continuing to use the old API at the same time as there are incompatibilities in how the PG_fscache page bit is used. Changes: v6: - Provide a routine to shape a write so that the start and length can be aligned for DIO[3]. v4: - Use the vfs_iocb_iter_read/write() helpers[1] - Move initial definition of fscache_begin_read_operation() here. - Remove a commented-out line[2] - Combine ki->term_func calls in cachefiles_read_complete()[2]. - Remove explicit NULL initialiser[2]. - Remove extern on func decl[2]. - Put in param names on func decl[2]. - Remove redundant else[2]. - Fill out the kdoc comment for fscache_begin_read_operation(). - Rename fs/fscache/page2.c to io.c to match later patches. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Reviewed-and-tested-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@kernel.org> Tested-by: Dave Wysochanski <dwysocha@redhat.com> Tested-By: Marc Dionne <marc.dionne@auristor.com> cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de> cc: linux-cachefs@redhat.com cc: linux-afs@lists.infradead.org cc: linux-nfs@vger.kernel.org cc: linux-cifs@vger.kernel.org cc: ceph-devel@vger.kernel.org cc: v9fs-developer@lists.sourceforge.net cc: linux-fsdevel@vger.kernel.org Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210216102614.GA27555@lst.de/ [1] Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/20210216084230.GA23669@lst.de/ [2] Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161781047695.463527.7463536103593997492.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ [3] Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161118142558.1232039.17993829899588971439.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # rfc Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161161037850.2537118.8819808229350326503.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v2 Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161340402057.1303470.8038373593844486698.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v3 Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161539545919.286939.14573472672781434757.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v4 Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161653801477.2770958.10543270629064934227.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v5 Link: https://lore.kernel.org/r/161789084517.6155.12799689829859169640.stgit@warthog.procyon.org.uk/ # v6
2019-05-24treewide: Replace GPLv2 boilerplate/reference with SPDX - rule 36Thomas Gleixner1-5/+1
Based on 1 normalized pattern(s): this program is free software you can redistribute it and or modify it under the terms of the gnu general public licence as published by the free software foundation either version 2 of the licence or at your option any later version extracted by the scancode license scanner the SPDX license identifier GPL-2.0-or-later has been chosen to replace the boilerplate/reference in 114 file(s). Signed-off-by: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Reviewed-by: Allison Randal <allison@lohutok.net> Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <kstewart@linuxfoundation.org> Cc: linux-spdx@vger.kernel.org Link: https://lkml.kernel.org/r/20190520170857.552531963@linutronix.de Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
2018-04-04fscache: Add tracepointsDavid Howells1-0/+2
Add some tracepoints to fscache: (*) fscache_cookie - Tracks a cookie's usage count. (*) fscache_netfs - Logs registration of a network filesystem, including the pointer to the cookie allocated. (*) fscache_acquire - Logs cookie acquisition. (*) fscache_relinquish - Logs cookie relinquishment. (*) fscache_enable - Logs enablement of a cookie. (*) fscache_disable - Logs disablement of a cookie. (*) fscache_osm - Tracks execution of states in the object state machine. and cachefiles: (*) cachefiles_ref - Tracks a cachefiles object's usage count. (*) cachefiles_lookup - Logs result of lookup_one_len(). (*) cachefiles_mkdir - Logs result of vfs_mkdir(). (*) cachefiles_create - Logs result of vfs_create(). (*) cachefiles_unlink - Logs calls to vfs_unlink(). (*) cachefiles_rename - Logs calls to vfs_rename(). (*) cachefiles_mark_active - Logs an object becoming active. (*) cachefiles_wait_active - Logs a wait for an old object to be destroyed. (*) cachefiles_mark_inactive - Logs an object becoming inactive. (*) cachefiles_mark_buried - Logs the burial of an object. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
2017-06-20sched/wait: Split out the wait_bit*() APIs from <linux/wait.h> into <linux/wait_bit.h>Ingo Molnar1-1/+1
The wait_bit*() types and APIs are mixed into wait.h, but they are a pretty orthogonal extension of wait-queues. Furthermore, only about 50 kernel files use these APIs, while over 1000 use the regular wait-queue functionality. So clean up the main wait.h by moving the wait-bit functionality out of it, into a separate .h and .c file: include/linux/wait_bit.h for types and APIs kernel/sched/wait_bit.c for the implementation Update all header dependencies. This reduces the size of wait.h rather significantly, by about 30%. Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2017-06-20sched/wait: Rename wait_queue_t => wait_queue_entry_tIngo Molnar1-1/+1
Rename: wait_queue_t => wait_queue_entry_t 'wait_queue_t' was always a slight misnomer: its name implies that it's a "queue", but in reality it's a queue *entry*. The 'real' queue is the wait queue head, which had to carry the name. Start sorting this out by renaming it to 'wait_queue_entry_t'. This also allows the real structure name 'struct __wait_queue' to lose its double underscore and become 'struct wait_queue_entry', which is the more canonical nomenclature for such data types. Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2017-03-02sched/headers: Prepare to remove <linux/cred.h> inclusion from <linux/sched.h>Ingo Molnar1-0/+1
Add #include <linux/cred.h> dependencies to all .c files rely on sched.h doing that for them. Note that even if the count where we need to add extra headers seems high, it's still a net win, because <linux/sched.h> is included in over 2,200 files ... Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Mike Galbraith <efault@gmx.de> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> Cc: linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2016-09-27cachefiles: Fix attempt to read i_blocks after deleting file [ver #2]David Howells1-1/+2
An NULL-pointer dereference happens in cachefiles_mark_object_inactive() when it tries to read i_blocks so that it can tell the cachefilesd daemon how much space it's making available. The problem is that cachefiles_drop_object() calls cachefiles_mark_object_inactive() after calling cachefiles_delete_object() because the object being marked active staves off attempts to (re-)use the file at that filename until after it has been deleted. This means that d_inode is NULL by the time we come to try to access it. To fix the problem, have the caller of cachefiles_mark_object_inactive() supply the number of blocks freed up. Without this, the following oops may occur: BUG: unable to handle kernel NULL pointer dereference at 0000000000000098 IP: [<ffffffffa06c5cc1>] cachefiles_mark_object_inactive+0x61/0xb0 [cachefiles] ... CPU: 11 PID: 527 Comm: kworker/u64:4 Tainted: G I ------------ 3.10.0-470.el7.x86_64 #1 Hardware name: Hewlett-Packard HP Z600 Workstation/0B54h, BIOS 786G4 v03.19 03/11/2011 Workqueue: fscache_object fscache_object_work_func [fscache] task: ffff880035edaf10 ti: ffff8800b77c0000 task.ti: ffff8800b77c0000 RIP: 0010:[<ffffffffa06c5cc1>] cachefiles_mark_object_inactive+0x61/0xb0 [cachefiles] RSP: 0018:ffff8800b77c3d70 EFLAGS: 00010246 RAX: 0000000000000000 RBX: ffff8800bf6cc400 RCX: 0000000000000034 RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: ffff880090ffc710 RDI: ffff8800bf761ef8 RBP: ffff8800b77c3d88 R08: 2000000000000000 R09: 0090ffc710000000 R10: ff51005d2ff1c400 R11: 0000000000000000 R12: ffff880090ffc600 R13: ffff8800bf6cc520 R14: ffff8800bf6cc400 R15: ffff8800bf6cc498 FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff8800bb8c0000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b CR2: 0000000000000098 CR3: 00000000019ba000 CR4: 00000000000007e0 DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000 DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400 Stack: ffff880090ffc600 ffff8800bf6cc400 ffff8800867df140 ffff8800b77c3db0 ffffffffa06c48cb ffff880090ffc600 ffff880090ffc180 ffff880090ffc658 ffff8800b77c3df0 ffffffffa085d846 ffff8800a96b8150 ffff880090ffc600 Call Trace: [<ffffffffa06c48cb>] cachefiles_drop_object+0x6b/0xf0 [cachefiles] [<ffffffffa085d846>] fscache_drop_object+0xd6/0x1e0 [fscache] [<ffffffffa085d615>] fscache_object_work_func+0xa5/0x200 [fscache] [<ffffffff810a605b>] process_one_work+0x17b/0x470 [<ffffffff810a6e96>] worker_thread+0x126/0x410 [<ffffffff810a6d70>] ? rescuer_thread+0x460/0x460 [<ffffffff810ae64f>] kthread+0xcf/0xe0 [<ffffffff810ae580>] ? kthread_create_on_node+0x140/0x140 [<ffffffff81695418>] ret_from_fork+0x58/0x90 [<ffffffff810ae580>] ? kthread_create_on_node+0x140/0x140 The oopsing code shows: callq 0xffffffff810af6a0 <wake_up_bit> mov 0xf8(%r12),%rax mov 0x30(%rax),%rax mov 0x98(%rax),%rax <---- oops here lock add %rax,0x130(%rbx) where this is: d_backing_inode(object->dentry)->i_blocks Fixes: a5b3a80b899bda0f456f1246c4c5a1191ea01519 (CacheFiles: Provide read-and-reset release counters for cachefilesd) Reported-by: Jianhong Yin <jiyin@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Jeff Layton <jlayton@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com> cc: stable@vger.kernel.org Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2016-02-01CacheFiles: Provide read-and-reset release counters for cachefilesdDavid Howells1-0/+4
Provide read-and-reset objects- and blocks-released counters for cachefilesd to use to work out whether there's anything new that can be culled. One of the problems cachefilesd has is that if all the objects in the cache are pinned by inodes lying dormant in the kernel inode cache, there isn't anything for it to cull. In such a case, it just spins around walking the filesystem tree and scanning for something to cull. This eats up a lot of CPU time. By telling cachefilesd if there have been any releases, the daemon can sleep until there is the possibility of something to do. cachefilesd finds this information by the following means: (1) When the control fd is read, the kernel presents a list of values of interest. "freleased=N" and "breleased=N" are added to this list to indicate the number of files released and number of blocks released since the last read call. At this point the counters are reset. (2) POLLIN is signalled if the number of files released becomes greater than 0. Note that by 'released' it just means that the kernel has released its interest in those files for the moment, not necessarily that the files should be deleted from the cache. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
2015-11-06mm, page_alloc: rename __GFP_WAIT to __GFP_RECLAIMMel Gorman1-1/+1
__GFP_WAIT was used to signal that the caller was in atomic context and could not sleep. Now it is possible to distinguish between true atomic context and callers that are not willing to sleep. The latter should clear __GFP_DIRECT_RECLAIM so kswapd will still wake. As clearing __GFP_WAIT behaves differently, there is a risk that people will clear the wrong flags. This patch renames __GFP_WAIT to __GFP_RECLAIM to clearly indicate what it does -- setting it allows all reclaim activity, clearing them prevents it. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.com> Acked-by: Vlastimil Babka <vbabka@suse.cz> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Cc: Vitaly Wool <vitalywool@gmail.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2015-02-24FS-Cache: Count culled objects and objects rejected due to lack of spaceDavid Howells1-1/+0
Count the number of objects that get culled by the cache backend and the number of objects that the cache backend declines to instantiate due to lack of space in the cache. These numbers are made available through /proc/fs/fscache/stats Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com> Acked-by: Jeff Layton <jeff.layton@primarydata.com>
2014-09-26fs/cachefiles: add missing \n to kerror conversionsFabian Frederick1-1/+1
Commit 0227d6abb378 ("fs/cachefiles: replace kerror by pr_err") didn't include newline featuring in original kerror definition Signed-off-by: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be> Reported-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Acked-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Cc: <stable@vger.kernel.org> [3.16.x] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06fs/cachefiles: replace kerror by pr_errFabian Frederick1-6/+12
Also add pr_fmt in internal.h Signed-off-by: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2014-06-06FS/CACHEFILES: convert printk to pr_foo()Fabian Frederick1-11/+11
Signed-off-by: Fabian Frederick <fabf@skynet.be> Cc: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-09-06CacheFiles: Implement interface to check cache consistencyDavid Howells1-0/+1
Implement the FS-Cache interface to check the consistency of a cache object in CacheFiles. Original-author: Hongyi Jia <jiayisuse@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> cc: Hongyi Jia <jiayisuse@gmail.com> cc: Milosz Tanski <milosz@adfin.com>
2012-12-20CacheFiles: Downgrade the requirements passed to the allocatorDavid Howells1-0/+2
Downgrade the requirements passed to the allocator in the gfp flags parameter. FS-Cache/CacheFiles can handle OOM conditions simply by aborting the attempt to store an object or a page in the cache. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com>
2010-08-12Add a dummy printk function for the maintenance of unused printksDavid Howells1-10/+3
Add a dummy printk function for the maintenance of unused printks through gcc format checking, and also so that side-effect checking is maintained too. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2010-05-11CacheFiles: Fix occasional EIO on call to vfs_unlink()David Howells1-0/+1
Fix an occasional EIO returned by a call to vfs_unlink(): [ 4868.465413] CacheFiles: I/O Error: Unlink failed [ 4868.465444] FS-Cache: Cache cachefiles stopped due to I/O error [ 4947.320011] CacheFiles: File cache on md3 unregistering [ 4947.320041] FS-Cache: Withdrawing cache "mycache" [ 5127.348683] FS-Cache: Cache "mycache" added (type cachefiles) [ 5127.348716] CacheFiles: File cache on md3 registered [ 7076.871081] CacheFiles: I/O Error: Unlink failed [ 7076.871130] FS-Cache: Cache cachefiles stopped due to I/O error [ 7116.780891] CacheFiles: File cache on md3 unregistering [ 7116.780937] FS-Cache: Withdrawing cache "mycache" [ 7296.813394] FS-Cache: Cache "mycache" added (type cachefiles) [ 7296.813432] CacheFiles: File cache on md3 registered What happens is this: (1) A cached NFS file is seen to have become out of date, so NFS retires the object and immediately acquires a new object with the same key. (2) Retirement of the old object is done asynchronously - so the lookup/create to generate the new object may be done first. This can be a problem as the old object and the new object must exist at the same point in the backing filesystem (i.e. they must have the same pathname). (3) The lookup for the new object sees that a backing file already exists, checks to see whether it is valid and sees that it isn't. It then deletes that file and creates a new one on disk. (4) The retirement phase for the old file is then performed. It tries to delete the dentry it has, but ext4_unlink() returns -EIO because the inode attached to that dentry no longer matches the inode number associated with the filename in the parent directory. The trace below shows this quite well. [md5sum] ==> __fscache_relinquish_cookie(ffff88002d12fb58{NFS.fh,ffff88002ce62100},1) [md5sum] ==> __fscache_acquire_cookie({NFS.server},{NFS.fh},ffff88002ce62100) NFS has retired the old cookie and asked for a new one. [kslowd] ==> fscache_object_state_machine({OBJ52,OBJECT_ACTIVE,24}) [kslowd] <== fscache_object_state_machine() [->OBJECT_DYING] [kslowd] ==> fscache_object_state_machine({OBJ53,OBJECT_INIT,0}) [kslowd] <== fscache_object_state_machine() [->OBJECT_LOOKING_UP] [kslowd] ==> fscache_object_state_machine({OBJ52,OBJECT_DYING,24}) [kslowd] <== fscache_object_state_machine() [->OBJECT_RECYCLING] The old object (OBJ52) is going through the terminal states to get rid of it, whilst the new object - (OBJ53) - is coming into being. [kslowd] ==> fscache_object_state_machine({OBJ53,OBJECT_LOOKING_UP,0}) [kslowd] ==> cachefiles_walk_to_object({ffff88003029d8b8},OBJ53,@68,) [kslowd] lookup '@68' [kslowd] next -> ffff88002ce41bd0 positive [kslowd] advance [kslowd] lookup 'Es0g00og0_Nd_XCYe3BOzvXrsBLMlN6aw16M1htaA' [kslowd] next -> ffff8800369faac8 positive The new object has looked up the subdir in which the file would be in (getting dentry ffff88002ce41bd0) and then looked up the file itself (getting dentry ffff8800369faac8). [kslowd] validate 'Es0g00og0_Nd_XCYe3BOzvXrsBLMlN6aw16M1htaA' [kslowd] ==> cachefiles_bury_object(,'@68','Es0g00og0_Nd_XCYe3BOzvXrsBLMlN6aw16M1htaA') [kslowd] remove ffff8800369faac8 from ffff88002ce41bd0 [kslowd] unlink stale object [kslowd] <== cachefiles_bury_object() = 0 It then checks the file's xattrs to see if it's valid. NFS says that the auxiliary data indicate the file is out of date (obvious to us - that's why NFS ditched the old version and got a new one). CacheFiles then deletes the old file (dentry ffff8800369faac8). [kslowd] redo lookup [kslowd] lookup 'Es0g00og0_Nd_XCYe3BOzvXrsBLMlN6aw16M1htaA' [kslowd] next -> ffff88002cd94288 negative [kslowd] create -> ffff88002cd94288{ffff88002cdaf238{ino=148247}} CacheFiles then redoes the lookup and gets a negative result in a new dentry (ffff88002cd94288) which it then creates a file for. [kslowd] ==> cachefiles_mark_object_active(,OBJ53) [kslowd] <== cachefiles_mark_object_active() = 0 [kslowd] === OBTAINED_OBJECT === [kslowd] <== cachefiles_walk_to_object() = 0 [148247] [kslowd] <== fscache_object_state_machine() [->OBJECT_AVAILABLE] The new object is then marked active and the state machine moves to the available state - at which point NFS can start filling the object. [kslowd] ==> fscache_object_state_machine({OBJ52,OBJECT_RECYCLING,20}) [kslowd] ==> fscache_release_object() [kslowd] ==> cachefiles_drop_object({OBJ52,2}) [kslowd] ==> cachefiles_delete_object(,OBJ52{ffff8800369faac8}) The old object, meanwhile, goes on with being retired. If allocation occurs first, cachefiles_delete_object() has to wait for dir->d_inode->i_mutex to become available before it can continue. [kslowd] ==> cachefiles_bury_object(,'@68','Es0g00og0_Nd_XCYe3BOzvXrsBLMlN6aw16M1htaA') [kslowd] remove ffff8800369faac8 from ffff88002ce41bd0 [kslowd] unlink stale object EXT4-fs warning (device sda6): ext4_unlink: Inode number mismatch in unlink (148247!=148193) CacheFiles: I/O Error: Unlink failed FS-Cache: Cache cachefiles stopped due to I/O error CacheFiles then tries to delete the file for the old object, but the dentry it has (ffff8800369faac8) no longer points to a valid inode for that directory entry, and so ext4_unlink() returns -EIO when de->inode does not match i_ino. [kslowd] <== cachefiles_bury_object() = -5 [kslowd] <== cachefiles_delete_object() = -5 [kslowd] <== fscache_object_state_machine() [->OBJECT_DEAD] [kslowd] ==> fscache_object_state_machine({OBJ53,OBJECT_AVAILABLE,0}) [kslowd] <== fscache_object_state_machine() [->OBJECT_ACTIVE] (Note that the above trace includes extra information beyond that produced by the upstream code). The fix is to note when an object that is being retired has had its object deleted preemptively by a replacement object that is being created, and to skip the second removal attempt in such a case. Reported-by: Greg M <gregm@servu.net.au> Reported-by: Mark Moseley <moseleymark@gmail.com> Reported-by: Romain DEGEZ <romain.degez@smartjog.com> Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-05-27CacheFiles: Fixup renamed filenames in comments in internal.hDavid Howells1-9/+9
Fix up renamed filenames in comments in fs/cachefiles/internal.h. Originally, the files were all called cf-xxx.c, but they got renamed to just xxx.c. Signed-off-by: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2009-04-03CacheFiles: A cache that backs onto a mounted filesystemDavid Howells1-0/+360
Add an FS-Cache cache-backend that permits a mounted filesystem to be used as a backing store for the cache. CacheFiles uses a userspace daemon to do some of the cache management - such as reaping stale nodes and culling. This is called cachefilesd and lives in /sbin. The source for the daemon can be downloaded from: http://people.redhat.com/~dhowells/cachefs/cachefilesd.c And an example configuration from: http://people.redhat.com/~dhowells/cachefs/cachefilesd.conf The filesystem and data integrity of the cache are only as good as those of the filesystem providing the backing services. Note that CacheFiles does not attempt to journal anything since the journalling interfaces of the various filesystems are very specific in nature. CacheFiles creates a misc character device - "/dev/cachefiles" - that is used to communication with the daemon. Only one thing may have this open at once, and whilst it is open, a cache is at least partially in existence. The daemon opens this and sends commands down it to control the cache. CacheFiles is currently limited to a single cache. CacheFiles attempts to maintain at least a certain percentage of free space on the filesystem, shrinking the cache by culling the objects it contains to make space if necessary - see the "Cache Culling" section. This means it can be placed on the same medium as a live set of data, and will expand to make use of spare space and automatically contract when the set of data requires more space. ============ REQUIREMENTS ============ The use of CacheFiles and its daemon requires the following features to be available in the system and in the cache filesystem: - dnotify. - extended attributes (xattrs). - openat() and friends. - bmap() support on files in the filesystem (FIBMAP ioctl). - The use of bmap() to detect a partial page at the end of the file. It is strongly recommended that the "dir_index" option is enabled on Ext3 filesystems being used as a cache. ============= CONFIGURATION ============= The cache is configured by a script in /etc/cachefilesd.conf. These commands set up cache ready for use. The following script commands are available: (*) brun <N>% (*) bcull <N>% (*) bstop <N>% (*) frun <N>% (*) fcull <N>% (*) fstop <N>% Configure the culling limits. Optional. See the section on culling The defaults are 7% (run), 5% (cull) and 1% (stop) respectively. The commands beginning with a 'b' are file space (block) limits, those beginning with an 'f' are file count limits. (*) dir <path> Specify the directory containing the root of the cache. Mandatory. (*) tag <name> Specify a tag to FS-Cache to use in distinguishing multiple caches. Optional. The default is "CacheFiles". (*) debug <mask> Specify a numeric bitmask to control debugging in the kernel module. Optional. The default is zero (all off). The following values can be OR'd into the mask to collect various information: 1 Turn on trace of function entry (_enter() macros) 2 Turn on trace of function exit (_leave() macros) 4 Turn on trace of internal debug points (_debug()) This mask can also be set through sysfs, eg: echo 5 >/sys/modules/cachefiles/parameters/debug ================== STARTING THE CACHE ================== The cache is started by running the daemon. The daemon opens the cache device, configures the cache and tells it to begin caching. At that point the cache binds to fscache and the cache becomes live. The daemon is run as follows: /sbin/cachefilesd [-d]* [-s] [-n] [-f <configfile>] The flags are: (*) -d Increase the debugging level. This can be specified multiple times and is cumulative with itself. (*) -s Send messages to stderr instead of syslog. (*) -n Don't daemonise and go into background. (*) -f <configfile> Use an alternative configuration file rather than the default one. =============== THINGS TO AVOID =============== Do not mount other things within the cache as this will cause problems. The kernel module contains its own very cut-down path walking facility that ignores mountpoints, but the daemon can't avoid them. Do not create, rename or unlink files and directories in the cache whilst the cache is active, as this may cause the state to become uncertain. Renaming files in the cache might make objects appear to be other objects (the filename is part of the lookup key). Do not change or remove the extended attributes attached to cache files by the cache as this will cause the cache state management to get confused. Do not create files or directories in the cache, lest the cache get confused or serve incorrect data. Do not chmod files in the cache. The module creates things with minimal permissions to prevent random users being able to access them directly. ============= CACHE CULLING ============= The cache may need culling occasionally to make space. This involves discarding objects from the cache that have been used less recently than anything else. Culling is based on the access time of data objects. Empty directories are culled if not in use. Cache culling is done on the basis of the percentage of blocks and the percentage of files available in the underlying filesystem. There are six "limits": (*) brun (*) frun If the amount of free space and the number of available files in the cache rises above both these limits, then culling is turned off. (*) bcull (*) fcull If the amount of available space or the number of available files in the cache falls below either of these limits, then culling is started. (*) bstop (*) fstop If the amount of available space or the number of available files in the cache falls below either of these limits, then no further allocation of disk space or files is permitted until culling has raised things above these limits again. These must be configured thusly: 0 <= bstop < bcull < brun < 100 0 <= fstop < fcull < frun < 100 Note that these are percentages of available space and available files, and do _not_ appear as 100 minus the percentage displayed by the "df" program. The userspace daemon scans the cache to build up a table of cullable objects. These are then culled in least recently used order. A new scan of the cache is started as soon as space is made in the table. Objects will be skipped if their atimes have changed or if the kernel module says it is still using them. =============== CACHE STRUCTURE =============== The CacheFiles module will create two directories in the directory it was given: (*) cache/ (*) graveyard/ The active cache objects all reside in the first directory. The CacheFiles kernel module moves any retired or culled objects that it can't simply unlink to the graveyard from which the daemon will actually delete them. The daemon uses dnotify to monitor the graveyard directory, and will delete anything that appears therein. The module represents index objects as directories with the filename "I..." or "J...". Note that the "cache/" directory is itself a special index. Data objects are represented as files if they have no children, or directories if they do. Their filenames all begin "D..." or "E...". If represented as a directory, data objects will have a file in the directory called "data" that actually holds the data. Special objects are similar to data objects, except their filenames begin "S..." or "T...". If an object has children, then it will be represented as a directory. Immediately in the representative directory are a collection of directories named for hash values of the child object keys with an '@' prepended. Into this directory, if possible, will be placed the representations of the child objects: INDEX INDEX INDEX DATA FILES ========= ========== ================================= ================ cache/@4a/I03nfs/@30/Ji000000000000000--fHg8hi8400 cache/@4a/I03nfs/@30/Ji000000000000000--fHg8hi8400/@75/Es0g000w...DB1ry cache/@4a/I03nfs/@30/Ji000000000000000--fHg8hi8400/@75/Es0g000w...N22ry cache/@4a/I03nfs/@30/Ji000000000000000--fHg8hi8400/@75/Es0g000w...FP1ry If the key is so long that it exceeds NAME_MAX with the decorations added on to it, then it will be cut into pieces, the first few of which will be used to make a nest of directories, and the last one of which will be the objects inside the last directory. The names of the intermediate directories will have '+' prepended: J1223/@23/+xy...z/+kl...m/Epqr Note that keys are raw data, and not only may they exceed NAME_MAX in size, they may also contain things like '/' and NUL characters, and so they may not be suitable for turning directly into a filename. To handle this, CacheFiles will use a suitably printable filename directly and "base-64" encode ones that aren't directly suitable. The two versions of object filenames indicate the encoding: OBJECT TYPE PRINTABLE ENCODED =============== =============== =============== Index "I..." "J..." Data "D..." "E..." Special "S..." "T..." Intermediate directories are always "@" or "+" as appropriate. Each object in the cache has an extended attribute label that holds the object type ID (required to distinguish special objects) and the auxiliary data from the netfs. The latter is used to detect stale objects in the cache and update or retire them. Note that CacheFiles will erase from the cache any file it doesn't recognise or any file of an incorrect type (such as a FIFO file or a device file). ========================== SECURITY MODEL AND SELINUX ========================== CacheFiles is implemented to deal properly with the LSM security features of the Linux kernel and the SELinux facility. One of the problems that CacheFiles faces is that it is generally acting on behalf of a process, and running in that process's context, and that includes a security context that is not appropriate for accessing the cache - either because the files in the cache are inaccessible to that process, or because if the process creates a file in the cache, that file may be inaccessible to other processes. The way CacheFiles works is to temporarily change the security context (fsuid, fsgid and actor security label) that the process acts as - without changing the security context of the process when it the target of an operation performed by some other process (so signalling and suchlike still work correctly). When the CacheFiles module is asked to bind to its cache, it: (1) Finds the security label attached to the root cache directory and uses that as the security label with which it will create files. By default, this is: cachefiles_var_t (2) Finds the security label of the process which issued the bind request (presumed to be the cachefilesd daemon), which by default will be: cachefilesd_t and asks LSM to supply a security ID as which it should act given the daemon's label. By default, this will be: cachefiles_kernel_t SELinux transitions the daemon's security ID to the module's security ID based on a rule of this form in the policy. type_transition <daemon's-ID> kernel_t : process <module's-ID>; For instance: type_transition cachefilesd_t kernel_t : process cachefiles_kernel_t; The module's security ID gives it permission to create, move and remove files and directories in the cache, to find and access directories and files in the cache, to set and access extended attributes on cache objects, and to read and write files in the cache. The daemon's security ID gives it only a very restricted set of permissions: it may scan directories, stat files and erase files and directories. It may not read or write files in the cache, and so it is precluded from accessing the data cached therein; nor is it permitted to create new files in the cache. There are policy source files available in: http://people.redhat.com/~dhowells/fscache/cachefilesd-0.8.tar.bz2 and later versions. In that tarball, see the files: cachefilesd.te cachefilesd.fc cachefilesd.if They are built and installed directly by the RPM. If a non-RPM based system is being used, then copy the above files to their own directory and run: make -f /usr/share/selinux/devel/Makefile semodule -i cachefilesd.pp You will need checkpolicy and selinux-policy-devel installed prior to the build. By default, the cache is located in /var/fscache, but if it is desirable that it should be elsewhere, than either the above policy files must be altered, or an auxiliary policy must be installed to label the alternate location of the cache. For instructions on how to add an auxiliary policy to enable the cache to be located elsewhere when SELinux is in enforcing mode, please see: /usr/share/doc/cachefilesd-*/move-cache.txt When the cachefilesd rpm is installed; alternatively, the document can be found in the sources. ================== A NOTE ON SECURITY ================== CacheFiles makes use of the split security in the task_struct. It allocates its own task_security structure, and redirects current->act_as to point to it when it acts on behalf of another process, in that process's context. The reason it does this is that it calls vfs_mkdir() and suchlike rather than bypassing security and calling inode ops directly. Therefore the VFS and LSM may deny the CacheFiles access to the cache data because under some circumstances the caching code is running in the security context of whatever process issued the original syscall on the netfs. Furthermore, should CacheFiles create a file or directory, the security parameters with that object is created (UID, GID, security label) would be derived from that process that issued the system call, thus potentially preventing other processes from accessing the cache - including CacheFiles's cache management daemon (cachefilesd). What is required is to temporarily override the security of the process that issued the system call. We can't, however, just do an in-place change of the security data as that affects the process as an object, not just as a subject. This means it may lose signals or ptrace events for example, and affects what the process looks like in /proc. So CacheFiles makes use of a logical split in the security between the objective security (task->sec) and the subjective security (task->act_as). The objective security holds the intrinsic security properties of a process and is never overridden. This is what appears in /proc, and is what is used when a process is the target of an operation by some other process (SIGKILL for example). The subjective security holds the active security properties of a process, and may be overridden. This is not seen externally, and is used whan a process acts upon another object, for example SIGKILLing another process or opening a file. LSM hooks exist that allow SELinux (or Smack or whatever) to reject a request for CacheFiles to run in a context of a specific security label, or to create files and directories with another security label. This documentation is added by the patch to: Documentation/filesystems/caching/cachefiles.txt Signed-Off-By: David Howells <dhowells@redhat.com> Acked-by: Steve Dickson <steved@redhat.com> Acked-by: Trond Myklebust <Trond.Myklebust@netapp.com> Acked-by: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Tested-by: Daire Byrne <Daire.Byrne@framestore.com>