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While descending directories, Kbuild produces objects for modules,
but do not link final *.ko files; it is done in the modpost.
To keep track of modules, Kbuild creates a *.mod file in $(MODVERDIR)
for every module it is building. Some post-processing steps read the
necessary information from *.mod files. This avoids descending into
directories again. This mechanism was introduced in 2003 or so.
Later, commit 551559e13af1 ("kbuild: implement modules.order") added
modules.order. So, we can simply read it out to know all the modules
with directory paths. This is easier than parsing the first line of
$(MODVERDIR) has a flat directory structure, that is, *.mod files
are named only with base names. This is based on the assumption that
the module name is unique across the tree. This assumption is really
Stephen Rothwell reported a race condition caused by a module name
In parallel building, two different threads could write to the same
Non-unique module names are the source of all kind of troubles, hence
commit 3a48a91901c5 ("kbuild: check uniqueness of module names")
introduced a new checker script.
However, it is still fragile in the build system point of view because
this race happens before scripts/modules-check.sh is invoked. If it
happens again, the modpost will emit unclear error messages.
To fix this issue completely, create *.mod with full directory path
so that two threads never attempt to write to the same file.
$(MODVERDIR) is no longer needed.
Since modules with directory paths are listed in modules.order, Kbuild
is still able to find *.mod files without additional descending.
I also killed cmd_secanalysis; scripts/mod/sumversion.c computes MD4 hash
for modules with MODULE_VERSION(). When CONFIG_DEBUG_SECTION_MISMATCH=y,
it occurs not only in the modpost stage, but also during directory
descending, where sumversion.c may parse stale *.mod files. It would emit
'No such file or directory' warning when an object consisting a module is
renamed, or when a single-obj module is turned into a multi-obj module or
Signed-off-by: Masahiro Yamada <email@example.com>
Acked-by: Nicolas Pitre <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Many source files in the tree are missing licensing information, which
makes it harder for compliance tools to determine the correct license.
By default all files without license information are under the default
license of the kernel, which is GPL version 2.
Update the files which contain no license information with the 'GPL-2.0'
SPDX license identifier. The SPDX identifier is a legally binding
shorthand, which can be used instead of the full boiler plate text.
This patch is based on work done by Thomas Gleixner and Kate Stewart and
How this work was done:
Patches were generated and checked against linux-4.14-rc6 for a subset of
the use cases:
- file had no licensing information it it.
- file was a */uapi/* one with no licensing information in it,
- file was a */uapi/* one with existing licensing information,
Further patches will be generated in subsequent months to fix up cases
where non-standard license headers were used, and references to license
had to be inferred by heuristics based on keywords.
The analysis to determine which SPDX License Identifier to be applied to
a file was done in a spreadsheet of side by side results from of the
output of two independent scanners (ScanCode & Windriver) producing SPDX
tag:value files created by Philippe Ombredanne. Philippe prepared the
base worksheet, and did an initial spot review of a few 1000 files.
The 4.13 kernel was the starting point of the analysis with 60,537 files
assessed. Kate Stewart did a file by file comparison of the scanner
results in the spreadsheet to determine which SPDX license identifier(s)
to be applied to the file. She confirmed any determination that was not
immediately clear with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
Criteria used to select files for SPDX license identifier tagging was:
- Files considered eligible had to be source code files.
- Make and config files were included as candidates if they contained >5
lines of source
- File already had some variant of a license header in it (even if <5
All documentation files were explicitly excluded.
The following heuristics were used to determine which SPDX license
identifiers to apply.
- when both scanners couldn't find any license traces, file was
considered to have no license information in it, and the top level
COPYING file license applied.
For non */uapi/* files that summary was:
SPDX license identifier # files
and resulted in the first patch in this series.
If that file was a */uapi/* path one, it was "GPL-2.0 WITH
Linux-syscall-note" otherwise it was "GPL-2.0". Results of that was:
SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 930
and resulted in the second patch in this series.
- if a file had some form of licensing information in it, and was one
of the */uapi/* ones, it was denoted with the Linux-syscall-note if
any GPL family license was found in the file or had no licensing in
it (per prior point). Results summary:
SPDX license identifier # files
GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note 270
GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 169
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-2-Clause) 21
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 17
LGPL-2.1+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 15
GPL-1.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 14
((GPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR BSD-3-Clause) 5
LGPL-2.0+ WITH Linux-syscall-note 4
LGPL-2.1 WITH Linux-syscall-note 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) OR MIT) 3
((GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note) AND MIT) 1
and that resulted in the third patch in this series.
- when the two scanners agreed on the detected license(s), that became
the concluded license(s).
- when there was disagreement between the two scanners (one detected a
license but the other didn't, or they both detected different
licenses) a manual inspection of the file occurred.
- In most cases a manual inspection of the information in the file
resulted in a clear resolution of the license that should apply (and
which scanner probably needed to revisit its heuristics).
- When it was not immediately clear, the license identifier was
confirmed with lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
- If there was any question as to the appropriate license identifier,
the file was flagged for further research and to be revisited later
In total, over 70 hours of logged manual review was done on the
spreadsheet to determine the SPDX license identifiers to apply to the
source files by Kate, Philippe, Thomas and, in some cases, confirmation
by lawyers working with the Linux Foundation.
Kate also obtained a third independent scan of the 4.13 code base from
FOSSology, and compared selected files where the other two scanners
disagreed against that SPDX file, to see if there was new insights. The
Windriver scanner is based on an older version of FOSSology in part, so
they are related.
Thomas did random spot checks in about 500 files from the spreadsheets
for the uapi headers and agreed with SPDX license identifier in the
files he inspected. For the non-uapi files Thomas did random spot checks
in about 15000 files.
In initial set of patches against 4.14-rc6, 3 files were found to have
copy/paste license identifier errors, and have been fixed to reflect the
Additionally Philippe spent 10 hours this week doing a detailed manual
inspection and review of the 12,461 patched files from the initial patch
version early this week with:
- a full scancode scan run, collecting the matched texts, detected
license ids and scores
- reviewing anything where there was a license detected (about 500+
files) to ensure that the applied SPDX license was correct
- reviewing anything where there was no detection but the patch license
was not GPL-2.0 WITH Linux-syscall-note to ensure that the applied
SPDX license was correct
This produced a worksheet with 20 files needing minor correction. This
worksheet was then exported into 3 different .csv files for the
different types of files to be modified.
These .csv files were then reviewed by Greg. Thomas wrote a script to
parse the csv files and add the proper SPDX tag to the file, in the
format that the file expected. This script was further refined by Greg
based on the output to detect more types of files automatically and to
distinguish between header and source .c files (which need different
comment types.) Finally Greg ran the script using the .csv files to
generate the patches.
Reviewed-by: Kate Stewart <email@example.com>
Reviewed-by: Philippe Ombredanne <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Reviewed-by: Thomas Gleixner <email@example.com>
Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <firstname.lastname@example.org>
make already provides the current working directory in a variable, so make
use of it instead of forking a shell. Also replace usage of PWD by
CURDIR. PWD is provided by most shells, but not all, so this makes the
build system more robust.
Signed-off-by: Uwe Kleine-König <email@example.com>
Signed-off-by: Michal Marek <firstname.lastname@example.org>
CPU power consumption vs performance tuning is no longer
limited to CPU frequency switching anymore: deep sleep states,
traditional dynamic frequency scaling and hidden turbo/boost
frequencies are tied close together and depend on each other.
The first two exist on different architectures like PPC, Itanium and
ARM, the latter (so far) only on X86. On X86 the APU (CPU+GPU) will
only run most efficiently if CPU and GPU has proper power management
Users and Developers want to have *one* tool to get an overview what
their system supports and to monitor and debug CPU power management
in detail. The tool should compile and work on as many architectures
Once this tool stabilizes a bit, it is intended to replace the
Intel-specific tools in tools/power/x86
Signed-off-by: Dominik Brodowski <email@example.com>